HM1-CHAPTER 1

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
124714
Filename:
HM1-CHAPTER 1
Updated:
2011-12-21 08:54:13
Tags:
HOSPITAL CORPSMAN
Folders:

Description:
CHAPTER 1
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. The study of body structure is called?
    Anatomy
  2. The study of how the body works is called?
    Physiology
  3. The study of the development of the body from a fertilized egg or ovum?
    Embryology
  4. What divides the body into right and left halves?
    Median or Midsagittal plane.
  5. What divides the body into posterior and anterior sections?
    Frontal or coronal planes
  6. What divides the body into superior and inferior sections?
    Horizontal or transverse plane.
  7. The standard body position is what?
    Anatomical position, stand up with palms forward
  8. Medial?
    Towards the midline of the body.
  9. Lateral?
    Farther away from the midline.
  10. Proximal?
    Closer towards the point of origin or closer to the body.
  11. Distal?
    Away from the point of origin or body.
  12. Superior?
    Higher than.
  13. Cranial?
    Towards the head.
  14. Caudal?
    Towards the feet.
  15. Supine?
    Lying with face up.
  16. Prone?
    Lying with face down.
  17. Lateral recumbent?
    Lying on either side.
  18. Peripheral?
    Outward part or surface of structure.
  19. What involves the physical and chemical breakdown of food?
    Digestion.
  20. The process of absorption, storage, and use of these foods is called?
    Metabolism.
  21. What is he body’s self regulated control of its internal environment?
    Homeostasis.
  22. The smallest unit of life and is the basic structural unit of all living things and is a functional unit all by itself is called?
    Cell.
  23. A cell is composed of a viscid, jelly like substance called often called “secret of life”?
    Protoplasm.
  24. What is a selectively permeable membrane surrounding the cell that hold sthe cell together and controls the exchange of materials between the cell?
    Plasma membrane.
  25. Gases and solids pass through the plasma membrane through a process called?
    Diffusion.
  26. A small, dense, usually spherical body that controls the chemical reactions occurring in the cell?
    Nucleus.
  27. Every human cell contains how many chromosomes?
    46.
  28. A gelatinous substance surrounding the nucleus?
    Cytoplasm.
  29. The simplest living organism consists of a what?
    Cell.
  30. A unicellular animal?
    Amoeba.
  31. What are groups of specialized cells similar in structure and functions?
    Tissues.
  32. They are classified into how many major groups?
    4.
  33. The lining tissue of the body is?
    Epithelium.
  34. The three categories of epithelium tissues are?
    Columnar, cubodial, and squamous.
  35. In certain areas such as nostrils, this tissue has a crown of microscopic hair like processes known as what?
    Cilia.
  36. The main protective tissue of the body is called what?
    Squamous.
  37. The most widespread tissue of the body is called?
    Connective or supporting tissue.
  38. What tissue consists of a meshwork of thin fibers that interlace in al directions giving tissue its elasticity and tensile strength?
    Areolar Connective tissue.
  39. What tissue is often called “fatty tissue” and is the reservoir for energy producing foods?
    Adipose.
  40. What tissue is known as bone tissue? It forms tendons, ligaments, and cartilage.
    Osseous Connective tissue.
  41. What type of tissue provides for all body movement?
    Muscular tissue.
  42. What type of tissue is striated, or striped, and is under the individuals control, and is often called voluntary muscle tissue?
    • Skeletal muscle tissue.
    • Smooth or non-striated that are not under the individuals control are called?
    • Smooth muscle tissue or involuntary tissue used by digestive system.
  43. The skeleton consists of how many bones?
    206.
  44. The study of bones is called?
    Osteology.
  45. The thin outer membrane surrounding the bone that provides nourishment is?
    Periosteum.
  46. The short bones are what?
    Ankle & wrist.
  47. Bones of the skull, sternum, and scapula are what type?
    Flat.
  48. Irregular bones are?
    Vertebrae, mandible, and pelvic bones.
  49. The skull has how many bones?
    28.
  50. The seams where the skull forms together are called?
    Sutures.
  51. What opening permits passage of the spinal cord from the cranium into the spinal column?
    Foramen magnum.
  52. How many facial bones are there?
    14, 13 immovable and lower jaw.
  53. What are the zygomatic bones?
    Cheeks.
  54. What is the vomer bone?
    Form the wall separating the two nasal cavities.
  55. The lower jawbone is called?
    Mandible.
  56. The vertebral column consists of how many vertebrae?
    24 and coccyx, sacrum..
  57. The hole directly behind the body of the vertebrae that forms the pssage for the spinal cord?
    Vertebral foramen.
  58. The cervical has how many?
    7.
  59. The first and second are called what?
    Atlas and axis.
  60. How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
    12.
  61. How many lumbar are there?
    5.
  62. How many rows of ribs are there?
    12.
  63. The first seven ribs are called?
    True ribs.
  64. The remaining five are called?
    False.
  65. The last two of the false ribs?
    Floating.
  66. What is the landmark in the administration of CPR?
    Xiphoid process.
  67. What bone is shaped like a flat letter S, commonly called the collarbone?
    Clavicle.
  68. What is the triangular bone on the upper part of the back on both sides?
    Scapula.
  69. The longest bone of the upper extremity is what?
    Humerus.
  70. What two bones form the forearm?
    Radius and Ulna.
  71. What side is the radius on?
    Thumb side.
  72. How many carpal bones are there?
    8.
  73. What are the small bones of the fingers called?
    Phalanges.
  74. The innominate bone is known as the what?
    Hip.
  75. How many parts are there?
    3, ilium, ischium, and pubis.
  76. In adults they combine to form a cuplike structure called the what?
    Acetabulum.
  77. The largest foramen or opening is located in the hip and is called the what?
    Obturator foramen.
  78. What bone is often called the thigh bone and is the largest bone in the body?
    Femur.
  79. The small oval shaped bone overlying the knee joint is called?
    Patella.
  80. Bones that develop within a tendon are called?
    Sesamoid bones.
  81. What is the larger of the two leg bones and lies on the medial side?
    Tibia.
  82. The ankle bone is called?
    Tarsus.
  83. How many bones form the Tarsus?
    7.
  84. The strongest of these seven bones is the what?
    Calcaneus or heel bone.
  85. What is the sole or instep of the foot called?
    Metatarsus.
  86. When ligaments are torn it is called a what?
    Sprain.
  87. What is the simplest type of motion?
    Gliding.
  88. Bending of an arm or leg?
    Flexion.
  89. Straightening or unbending on an arm or leg?
    Extension.
  90. Moving an extremity away from the body?
    Abduction.
  91. Bringing an extremity towards the body?
    Adduction.
  92. What us the term used to describe the movements of the hips and shoulders?
    Circumduction.
  93. Supination is what?
    Turning upward.
  94. Pronation is what?
    Turning downward.
  95. Eversion is?
    Turning outward.
  96. Inversion is what?
    Turning inward.
  97. Muscles make up how much total body weight?
    ½ total weight.
  98. Muscles provide what three functions?
    Movement, posture, heat.
  99. What is a prime mover?
    Muscle that is contracting.
  100. A relaxing muscle is what?
    Antagonist.
  101. What is the continual state of partial contraction that give a muscle certain firmness?
    Tonicity.
  102. Rigor mortis occurs within how long after death?
    10 minutes to several hours.
  103. What muscle has the most abundant blood supply in the body?
    Cardiac muscle.
  104. What muscle raises the jaw?
    Temporalis.
  105. What muscle raises the mandible to close the jaw?
    Masseter, used for mastication of food.
  106. What muscles rate the head to right and left?
    Sternocleidomastoid.
  107. What muscles are broad trapezium shaped pair of muscles on lower back that help raise or lower the shoulders?
    Trapezius.
  108. Prominent chest muscle that rotates the arm inward?
    Pectoris Major.
  109. Raises the arm and is frequent site if IM injections?
    Deltoid.
  110. Prominent muscle on the anterior surface of the upper arm that rotates the arm outward?
    Biceps Branchi.
  111. Large muscles of the buttocks, site of choice for IM injections?
    Gluteus.
  112. What muscle is often called the hamstring muscle?
    Biceps Femoris.
  113. What is the longest muscle in the body?
    Sartorius.
  114. What is the primary muscle of respiration and forms the wall of the thoracic cavity?
    Diaphragm.
  115. The epidermis is what?
    The outer skin layer.
  116. What is the second skin layer that blends directly into the deeper tissues?
    Dermis or true skin.
  117. The hair root is imbedded in a pit like depression called the what?
    Hair follicle.
  118. Sabaceous Glands are found in most parts of the body except?
    Feet and palms of the hand.
  119. How much is secreted from the sweat glands on a daily basis?
    1 liter.
  120. What are the only modified sweat glands found in the auditory canal?
    Ceruminous glands.
  121. The circulatory system is also called the what?
    Vascular system.
  122. The total blood volume on an average adult is?
    5-6 liters.
  123. What is the liquid part of blood that is clear, slightly alkaline, straw colored that is 92% water?
    Plasma.
  124. Plasma is what percentage of whole blood?
    55%.
  125. Red blood cells are called?
    Erythrocytes.
  126. Blood of the average man contains how many red cells per cubic millimeter?
    5 million.
  127. Females have how many?
    4.5.
  128. Red blood cells do what primarily?
    Deliver oxygen to body tissues.
  129. The red blood cells live approximately how long?
    100-120 days.
  130. What is known as the graveyard?
    Spleen.
  131. Leukocytes are also called?
    WBC.
  132. Normal WBC count is what?
    6,000 to 8,000.
  133. If the WBC count is above what indicates infection?
    15,000 to 20,000.
  134. An abnormally high WBC count is called?
    Leukocytosis.
  135. What play an important role in blood coagulation? They are oval shaped discs that contain no nucleus.
    Blood Platelets or thrombocytes.
  136. Normal clotting time is what?
    3-5 minutes.
  137. An inherited disease characterized by delayed clotting of the blood and difficulty in controlling hemorrhage?
    Hemophilia.
  138. The heart is enclosed in a membranous sac called the what?
    Pericardium.
  139. The inner surface of the heart is lined with a delicate serous membrane?
    Endocardium.
  140. The interior of the heart is divided into two parts by a wall called the?
    Interventricular septum.
  141. What is the heart muscle?
    Myocardium.
  142. Contractions of the heart are stimulated by what and are commonly called the pacemaker of the heart?
    Sinoatrial node (SA)
  143. The average heart beat is what?
    70-80.
  144. The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is known as?
    Pulse pressure.
  145. What is the average pressure of BP?
    120-150 and 70-90.
  146. Blood vessels fall into three classifications, Arteries fall into what?
    Distributors.
  147. Capillaries are what?
    Distributors.
  148. Veins are called?
    Collectors.
  149. How many miles of capillaries are found within the body?
    60,000 miles.
  150. What is the largest artery in the body?
    Aorta.
  151. What are the only veins in the body that carry freshly oxygenated blood?
    Pulmonary System.
  152. What drains the venous blood from the abdominal part of the digestive tract and delivers it to the liver?
    Portal system.
  153. The vein of great interest for you and is most commonly used for venipuncture is what?
    Median cubital.
  154. What vein is used for IV injections at the ankle?
    Great Saphenous vein.
  155. What gives resistance or immunity to the effects of specific disease causing agents?
    Lymphocytes.
  156. What also called the throat serves both the respiratory and digestive systems and aids in speech?
    Pharynx.
  157. What is the lid like, cartilaginous structure that covers the entrance to the larynx and separates it from the pharynx?
    Epiglottis.
  158. What is responsible for the production of voice?
    • Larynx.
    • What is commonly called the thyroid cartilage?
    • Adam’s Apple.
  159. What terminates by dividing into the left and right bronchi composed of 16-20 C-shaped cartilaginous rings, also called the wind pipe?
    Trachea.
  160. What are the thin microscopic air sacs within the lungs that helps fresh oxygen exchanges occur?
    Alveoili.
  161. The terminal branches of the trachea are called?
    Bronchi.
  162. What are the airtight membranes that cover the outer surface of the lungs and line the chest wall preventing friction during movement of respiration?
    Pleurae.
  163. What is the tissue and organs of the thoracic cavity that form a septum between the lungs?
    Mediastinum.
  164. What is the primary muscle of respiration?
    Diaphragm.
  165. What is the nerve that controls the diaphragm?
    Phrenic nerve.
  166. Normal respiration is?
    14-18.
  167. Air left in the lungs after forceful exhalation is called and is of what volume?
    Residual air, 1200 ml.
  168. The air exchanged with each normal respiration is called?
    Tidal air.
  169. What are the brain’s two main divisions?
    Cerebellum and cerebrum.
  170. What is the largest and most superiorly situated portion of the brain?
    Cerebrum.
  171. The outer surface also called the gray matter is?
    Cortex.
  172. What is called “white matter”?
    Medulla.
  173. The cerebellum is responsible for what?
    Balance, coordination?
  174. What is the control center for the heartbeat, breathing, and other vital functions?
    Medulla Oblongata.
  175. The outer surface of the brain and spinal cord is covered with three layers of membranes called the what?
    Meninges.
  176. The strong outer layer is called the?
    Dura matter.
  177. The inner most layer is highly vascular and is called?
    Pia matter.
  178. What is the body’s self balancing of it’s internal environment?
    Homeostasis.
  179. What is the hormone that stimulates uterine contractions during pregnancy?
    Oxytocin.
  180. The olfactory nerve controls what?
    Smell.
  181. Hypoglossal?
    Tongue.
  182. Trochlear?
    Eye movements.
  183. What is the small pea sized gland located at the base of the brain and is known as the master gland of the body?
    Pituitary gland.
  184. What is the growth hormone that is responsible for body growth and development?
    Somatotropin.
  185. Daily urine output is between what?
    1,000-1,500 ml.
  186. What gland is shaped like a butterfly lie in the anterior part of the neck?
    Thyroid gland.
  187. What are the glands located on the superior surface of each kidney fitting like a cap?
    Adrenal glands.
  188. The islands of Langerhans are part of what organ?
    Pancreas.
  189. The male gonad is what?
    Testes.
  190. Female gonad is?
    Ovaries.
  191. The sensation of the tongue is limited to what?
    Sour, sweet, bitter, and salty.
  192. In the eyes what helps give the eye it’s curved shaped, clear water fluid?
    Aqueous humor.
  193. What helps maintain sufficient pressure inside the eye to prevent the eyeball from collapsing?
    Vitreous humor.
  194. The outer layer of the eye is called?
    Sclera.
  195. What is the window of the eye?
    Cornea.
  196. What gland produces tears?
    Lacrimal gland.
  197. What gives color to the eye?
    Iris.
  198. What is responsible for night vision?
    Rods.
  199. Daytime vision is controlled by what?
    Cones.
  200. The deflection or bending of light is called?
    Refraction.
  201. What is the name for the eardrum?
    Tympanic membrane.
  202. What are the three parts of the middle ear?
    Mallus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup).
  203. What is 36mm long and is responsible for equalizing internal and external air pressure?
    Eustachian tube.
  204. What is the small snail shaped structure housing the organ of corti?
    Cochlea.
  205. What is the organ of hearing?
    Organ of Corti.
  206. What is peristalis?
    Wavelike motion is which food travels through digestion organs.
  207. What is the passageway from the pharynx and stomach?
    Esophagus.
  208. Most food absorption takes place where?
    Small intestines.
  209. The stomach and intestines are enclosed in the abdominal cavity, this cavity is lined with a serous membrane called?
    Peritoneum.
  210. What are the three parts of the small intestines?
    Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
  211. Most of the absorption in the small intestine stakes place where?
    Ileum.
  212. What are the three parts of the large intestine?
    Cecum, colon, and rectum.
  213. What is the largest gland in the body?
    Liver.
  214. What is the large reservoir where urine is temporarily stored before excretion?
    Urinary bladder.
  215. What are two bean shaped organs designed to filter waste materials from the blood?
    Kidneys.
  216. What are the functional unit’s of the kidneys?
    Nephron.
  217. The other name for the glomerus capsule is?
    Bowman’s capsule.
  218. How many gallons of blood pass through the kidneys in 24 hours?
    2,500 gallons.
  219. Whose function is to carry urine from each kidney to the urinary bladder?
    Ureters.
  220. The bladder can hold up to how much urine?
    600ml.
  221. What is the small tube that connects the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct?
    Vas deferens.
  222. Whose function is to transport sperm through the penis to the outside of the body?
    Urethra.
  223. What gland is chestnut in size and secretes and alkaline fluid to keep the sperm mobile?
    Prostate gland.
  224. What are the two pea sized bodies located below the prostate gland and lateral to the urethra, they provide lubrication to the end of the penis in preparation for sex?
    Bulbourethral glands or Cowper’s glands.
  225. What is the female’s primary reproductive organ?
    Ovaries.
  226. Menstrual cycle for women is approximately how many days?
    28 days.
  227. What is the passageway from the ovaries to the uterus?
    Fallopian tubes.
  228. Whose function is to receive the embryo that results from the fertilization of an egg cell?
    Uterus.
  229. What is the organ that receives the male sperm during intercourse?
    Vagina.
  230. Mammary glands are known as?
    Breasts.
  231. The transfer of fluids across the plasma membrane of a cell from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration is a process known as?
    Diffusion.
  232. The secretion of digestive fluids and the absorption of digested foods and liquids is the chief function of which tissue?
    Columnar Tissue.
  233. What are the two most prominent mineral elements of a bone?
    Calcium and Phosporus.
  234. The head of the humerus is called what?
    Glenoid Fossa.
  235. Actin and myosin are the two protein substances involved in what?
    Muscle contraction
  236. The body’s primary thermo-regulatory action is a function of dilating and contracting blood vessels and the what?
    Sweat glands.
  237. A decreased RBC count could be a medical condition affecting what?
    Red bone marrow.
  238. In an accident victim suffering from a fibrinogen deficiency, the rescuer may have difficulty performing what action(s)?
    Controlling hemorrhage.
  239. In addition to preventing excessive blood loss, the formation of a blood clot serves what other purpose?
    Growth of new tissues to begin healing.
  240. The contraction phase of the heart is?
    Systole.
  241. The impulse receptors of a nerve are called what?
    Dendrites.
  242. The space through which a nerve impulse passes from one neuron to another is called?
    Synopse.
  243. In what part of the body is cerebral spinal fluid produced?
    Ventricles of the brain.
  244. The 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 of spinal form what nervous system?
    Peripheal Nervous System.
  245. The overproduction of which hormone leads to acromegaly?
    Somatotropin.
  246. Calcium levels in the blood are controlled by which of the following hormones?
    Parathormone.
  247. What hormone is produced by the Alpha cells of the islands of Langerhans in the pancreas?
    Glucagon.
  248. Fertilization of an ovum normally takes place where?
    Fallopian tubes.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview