PATH1

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Author:
ellen28
ID:
124756
Filename:
PATH1
Updated:
2011-12-21 12:59:36
Tags:
Pathology
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Description:
Pathology, SOMA
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  1. Boils
    Bacteriral - Local staphylococcus infection of the sebaceous gland
  2. Boils
    Faruncle = 1 gland
  3. Boils
    Carbuncle = cluster of glands
  4. Boils
    Contagious? - Yes
  5. Boils
    Local contraindication
  6. Cellulitis
    Bacterial - Streptococcal infection of the skin
  7. Cellulitis
    Usually found on the face or lower legs
  8. Cellulitis
    Well defined red patches of inflammation
  9. Cellulitis
    Contagious? - Yes
  10. Cellulitis
    Systemic contraindication until infection passes
  11. Fungal infections
    Variety of dermatophytes feed on dead skin cells/keratin
  12. Fungal infections
    Contagious? - Yes
  13. Fungal infections
    Local contraindication (very contagious; skin to skin, object to skin)
  14. Fungal infections
    • Red patches are called Tinea - ringworm
    • capitus – head
    • corporis – body
    • pedis – feet (athlete's foot)
    • cruris – genital (jock itch)
    • manus - hands
  15. Herpes Simplex
    • Viral infection
    • type 1 – oral
    • type 2 – genital
  16. Herpes Simplex
    Contagious? - Yes
  17. Herpes Simplex
    Local contraindication
  18. Herpes Simplex
    • Virus is primarily dormant until triggered – stress, excessive sunlight
    • outbreaks last 2-3 weeks
    • sores may or maynot be present, virus can spread either way
    • can live outside host for hours
  19. Impetigo
    Bacteriral – streptococcus or staphylococcus infection
  20. Impetigo
    • Infection appears where there is broken or damaged skin
    • honey colored crust after blisters pop
  21. Impetigo
    Contagious? - Yes
  22. Impetigo
    Systemically contraindicated untill signs and symptomse are resolved/over
  23. Mites
    Arthropods/Parasites that causes skin lesions called scabies
  24. Mites
    Typically found in moist areas of the body and burrow under the skin to drink blood defacate and reproduce
  25. Mites
    Contagious? - Yes
  26. Mites
    • Systemic contraindication
    • - skin to skin
    • - object to skin
  27. Lice
    Arthropods/parasites
  28. Lice
    • Head lice - live on scalp lay eggs(nits) on hair follicle
    • body lice - live/stay on clothing
    • pubic lice (crabs) - live on coarse body hair
  29. Lice
    Contagious? - Yes
  30. Lice
    Systemic contraindication until infestation is resolved
  31. Warts
    Benign neoplasm caused by the human papilloma virus(HPV)
  32. Warts
    • dont spread easily
    • mainly in children and teenagers
    • virus can spread if wart is picked at and aggrivated
    • resolve in +/-2 years
    • cauliflower shaped
  33. Warts
    Contagious? - Yes - not very
  34. Warts
    Local contraindication
  35. Acne Rosacea
    Idiopathic chronic skin condition
  36. Acne Rosacea
    • 30-60yr old fair skinned
    • mostly found on face
    • triggers – sunlight, stress, foods
  37. Acne Rosacea
    Contagious? - No
  38. Acne Rosacea
    Locally contraindication
  39. Acne vulgaris
    Small localized bacterial infections of the sebaceous glands
  40. Acne vulgaris
    • -Typically on the face, neck and back
    • -localized pain
    • -not systemic
  41. Acne vulgaris
    Contagious? - No
  42. Acne vulgaris
    Local contraindication if skin is compromised
  43. Dermatitis/ eczema
    • Skin inflammation Derm. - from external irritant or allergen
    • - Type 1 reaction – systemic immune response – immediate
    • - Type 4 reaction – allergic reaction where symptoms show 24-48 hours after exposure – delayed response
  44. Dermatitis/ eczema
    • Eczema – immune dysfunctionn/ hypersensitivity expressed in skin
    • - Type 4 reaction – allergic reaction where symptoms show 24-48 hours after exposure – delayed response
  45. Dermatitis/ eczema
    Contagious? - No
  46. Dermatitis/ eczema
    Indicated depending on source of irritant/ skin condition
  47. Hives
    Caused by allergic reaction or stress
  48. Hives
    • Type 1 – hypersensitivity reaction
    • redness/swelling/pain
    • small raised patches called wheals
  49. Hives
    Contagious? - No
  50. Hives
    Systemic contraindication in acute phase
  51. Moles
    Benign neoplasm of melanocytes
  52. Moles
    • Black or brown – no color mixture
    • nevi – small
    • mole – larger
  53. Moles
    Contagious? - No
  54. Moles
    Indicated - be cautious with pressure directly over mole
  55. Psoriasis
    • Chronic skin disease
    • - hyperactive epithelial tissue replication
    • - cause is still being studied
  56. Psoriasis
    • Every 2-4 days vs. 28-32 days
    • physical/emotional trauma, immune suppression
    • pink patches w/ silvery scales
    • itchy
  57. Psoriasis
    Contagious? - No
  58. Psoriasis
    Local contraindication in acute stage or if skin is not intact
  59. Actinic Keratosis
    Pre-cancerous red to brown scaly lesions
  60. Actinic Keratosis
    Sores crust but do not heal properly
  61. Actinic Keratosis
    Contagious? - No
  62. Actinic Keratosis
    Local contraindication
  63. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    Uncontrolled growth(tumor) of stratum basale layer of epidermis
  64. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    • Commonly seen on bridge of nose and eyebrows
    • small lumps with round edges
    • hard border with sunken middle
    • sores do not heal – crust over/ shed the scab/ then crust again
  65. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    Contagious? - No
  66. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    Local contraindication
  67. Squamos Cell Carcinoma
    Uncontrolled growth (tumor) of Keratinocytes of the epidermis
  68. Squamos Cell Carcinoma
    • More dangerous than BCC
    • can spread to lymph system
  69. Squamos Cell Carcinoma
    Contagious? - No
  70. Squamos Cell Carcinoma
    Modified MT with MD approval
  71. Malignant Melanoma
    Neoplasm of the melanocytes
  72. Malignant Melanoma
    Contagious? - No
  73. Malignant Melanoma
    Modified MT with MD approval
  74. Malignant Melanoma
    • Least common
    • Leading cause of skin disease related deaths
    • Characterized by
    • -Asymmetrical
    • -Border – irregular/indistinct
    • -Color – mixed/multicolored
    • -Diameter – larger than 5mm
    • -Elevated – partially
  75. 1st degree burn
    Mild inflammation of the superficial epidermis
  76. 1st degree burn
    Contagious? - No
  77. 1st degree burn
    • Redness, edema, pain, heat (inflammation)
    • NO blistering -lasts 2-3 days typically
  78. 2nd degree burn
    Damage to epidermis and dermis
  79. 2nd degree burn
    Contagious? - No
  80. 2nd degree burn
    Local contraindication
  81. 2nd degree burn
    • blistering
    • inflammation
    • accessory organs damaged but not permanently
  82. 3rd degree burn
    Damage to the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue
  83. 3rd degree burn
    Contagious? - No
  84. 3rd degree burn
    • Permanent damage to accessory organs
    • blackened tissue, sometimes whitening and charring
  85. 3rd degree burn
    Local contraindication
  86. Decubitus ulcer
    • Aka bedsore, pressure sore, trophic ulcer
    • possibly seen in bedridden, wheelchair bound patients
    • chronic inadequate blood flow to tissue
  87. Decubitus ulcer
    Damage to tissue near bony areas or areas with prolonged pressure
  88. Decubitus ulcer
    Contagious? - No
  89. Decubitus ulcer
    • Local contraindication
    • systemic contraintdication if there is systemic infection
  90. Ichthyosis
    • Resemble fish scales
    • may be darker than surrounding tissue
  91. Ichthyosis
    Pathologically dry skin
  92. Ichthyosis
    Contagious? - No
  93. Ichthyosis
    Contraindication if skin is not intact
  94. Fibromyalgia syndrome
    Body wide pain diagnosed by min. Of 11 out 0f 18 tender points when other conditions have been ruled out
  95. Fibromyalgia syndrome
    • Body wide pain
    • fatigue
    • trouble sleeping or non restorative sleep
    • chronic pain for at least 3 months
  96. Fibromyalgia syndrome
    Indicated within client's pain tolerence.
  97. Myofascial pain syndrome
    Collection of signs and symptoms indicating trauma to muscles
  98. Myofascial pain syndrome
    • chronic pain/spasm/pain cycle
    • development of chronic trigger points
    • chronic pain/no relief
  99. Myofascial pain syndrome
    Indicated
  100. Muscular dystrophy
    Degeneration of muscle tissue/atrophy of skeletal muscle leading to permanent contracture
  101. Muscular dystrophy
    • Lack of dystrophin – protein that helps muscles convert muscle or glycogen to fuel
    • muscle is replaced by fat and connective tissue
  102. Muscular dystrophy
    Indicated to minimize contractures
  103. Myositis Ossificans
    Bone formation in soft tissue typically as a result of trauma
  104. Myositis Ossificans
    • Bruising usually followed by hardening and tenderness in area
    • hardened bony type mass sets up
    • eventually reabsorbed by the body within +/-2 years
  105. Myositis Ossificans
    Local contraindication in acute stage - work in later stages to poss. Help body reabsorb bony formation
  106. Shin splints
    Generic term to describe various lower leg conditions
  107. Shin splints
    Indicated in subacute stage
  108. Shin splints
    • Periostitis – inflammation of periosteum
    • Hairline fracture(stress fracture)
    • Compartment syndrome (acute - med. Emergency, chronic)
  109. Spasm and cramp
    Spasm - chronic (guarding)
  110. Spasm and cramp
    Cramp - acute involuntary full contraction of muscle
  111. Spasm and cramp
    Cramp - cramp relief indicated
  112. Spasm and cramp
    Spasm - reduce but do not remove spasm
  113. Spasm and cramp
    • Contributing factors include:
    • -nutrition
    • -ischemia
    • -exercise-associated muscle cramping
    • -spllinting (guarding)
  114. Strains
    A tear or rip to the musculotendinous unit of a muscle
  115. Strains
    • 3 degrees of strain:
    • -1st – mild
    • -2nd – moderate
    • -3rd – severe – rupture
  116. Strains
    Contraindication in acute stage

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