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  1. Question
  2. A burst fracture of the C1 ring?
    jefferson fracture
  3. any break in the bony ring of a vertebra that occurs on a slice that shows the __________ _______ is a spondylolysis until proved otherwise?
    basivertebral plexus
  4. Helps distinguish myositis ossificans from parosteal osteosarcoma?
    Parosteal sarcoma demonstrates central clumps of calcification and myositis ossificans has peripheral ossification/calcification.
  5. "Define disk bulge
    sequestered or free fragment?"
  6. Distinguishing a free fragment from a Tarlov cyst or conjoined nerve root?
    A free fragment is hyperdense to thecal sac and Tarlov cyts and conjoined nerve roots are isodense to thecal sac.
  7. Lateral disk protrusion affects what nerve root?
    A nerve rooth that has already exited the neuroforamen at a more cephalad level.
  8. Congenital causes of spinal stenosis?
  9. Acquired spinal stenosis causes?
    "Degenerative disk disease
  10. Anatomic classification of spinal stenosis?
    "Central canal stenosis
  11. Most useful CT criteria for diagnosing central canal stenosis?
    "Obliteration of epidural fat
  12. Pars interarticularis defect?
  13. Anterior displacement of a cephalad vertebral body with respect to a caudad vertebral body?
    "Spondylolisthesis. Grade I (<25%)
  14. Most common site for coalition?
    Calcaneonavicular joint.
  15. Finding causing the greatest concern for metastatic bone disease or multiple myeloma involvement?
    A permeative process.
  16. Spinal hemangioma CT features?
    "vertical trabecular thickening
  17. Schmorl's node?
    Herniation of disk material through end plate of vertebral body.
  18. Tarlov cysts?
    "Nerve sheath dilatations of fluid density at CT
  19. Paget's disease on CT?
    "Purely lytic or sclerotic or mixed. Bone overgrowth
  20. Fibrous dysplasia?
    "Congenital disorder of bone
  21. Common right-sided anomalous pulmonary venous return insertions?
    "SVC azygos vein
  22. Common left-sided anomalous pulmonary venous return insertions?
    "Left brachiocephalic vein
  23. CT features that suggest lung cancer?
    "Irregular or spiculated margine
  24. Lung hamartoma CT features?
  25. 4 findings of rounded atelectasis?
    "1. Ipsilateral pleural thickening or effusion. 2. Contact between lung lesion and pleural surface. 3. ""comet tail"" sign. 4. Volume loss of lobe involved."
  26. Air-crescent sign?
    Lung mass capped by a crescent of air. Most typical of mycetoma (fungus ball). Fungus ball (Aspergillus) forms in preexisting cyst or cavity.
  27. Lung abscess CT features?
    Necrosis or cavitation within area of pneumonia or dense consolidation.
  28. Satellite nodules and galaxy sign?
    "Granulomatous lesions with smaller nearby nodules--satellite. In sarcoidosis
  29. Benign pulmonary nodule calcification patterns?
    "Diffuse (granuloma)
  30. Benign pulmonary nodule doubling times?
    " < 1 month
  31. What increase in diameter equals a doubling of volume?
    26% increase (10 mm to 12.6 mm)
  32. "Differential
    multiple large pulmonary nodules?"
  33. Pulmonary metastasis characteristics?
    Typically round and well-defined. Cavitation and calcification can be seen.
  34. Signet ring sign?
    "Bronchiectasis. Cross section of pulmonary artery branch adjacent to dilated
  35. Bronchiectasis patterns in cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis?
  36. Causes of interlobular septal thickening as predominant finding at HRCT?
    1. Lymphatic spread of carcinoma. 2. Interstitial pulmonary edema. 3. Alveolar proteinosis. 4. Sarcoidosis.
  37. Common causes of fibrosis and honeycombing as predominant HRCT findings?
    "IPF 65%
  38. 3 distributions of pulmonary nodules at HRCT?
    "Perilymphatic nodules (pleural surface
  39. CT features of pulmonary lymphangitic spread of carcinoma?
    "Interlobular septal thickening
  40. CT features of pulmonary hematogenous spread of tumor?
    "Random distribution
  41. CT features of IPF (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis--UIP is histology pattern)?
    "Intralobular interstitial thickening
  42. "Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NIP
    collagen vascular disease) CT features?"
  43. Active sarcoidosis CT features?
    "Perilymphatic nodules
  44. HRCT findings in end-stage sarcoidosis?
    "Irregular septal thickening
  45. Pulmonary lymphangitic spread of carcinoma?
    "Interlobular septal thickening
  46. Pulmonary hematogenous spread of tumor?
    "Random distribution
  47. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis CT features?
    "Intralobular thickening
  48. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia CT features?
    "Ground-glass opacity
  49. Collagen vascular disease as lung disease?
    "Rheumatoid lung
  50. Active pulmonary sarcoidosis CT features?
    "Perilymphatic nodules
  51. End-stage sarcoidosis?
    "Irregular septal thickening
  52. Silicosis and Coal Worker's pneumoconiosis?
    "Perilymphatic nodules
  53. Pulmonary Tuberculosis CT features?
    "Endobronchial spread (centrilobular nodules
  54. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis?
    "Filling of alveolar spaces with lipid-rich proteinaceous material
  55. "Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
    subacute stage CT features?"
  56. "Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia
  57. HRCT features of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia?
    "Patchy or nodular consolidation
  58. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia?
    "Filling of alveoli by mixed inflammatory infiltrate (eosinophils)
  59. Histiocytosis (aka Langerhans histiocytosis or eosinophilic granuloma)?
    "Centrilobular nodules (may cavitate)
  60. Lymphangiomyomatosis?
    "Women of child bearing age
  61. List 4 types of emphysema?
    "Centrilobular (upper lobes
  62. Split pleura sign?
    Thickened visceral and parietal pleural layers are split apart and surround an empyema.
  63. Extension of an empyema to involve the chest wall is termed?
    empyema necessitatis.
  64. Lung abscess versus empyema CT characteristics?
    "Abscess (poorly defined
  65. CT features of a malignant effusion?
    "Nodular pleural thickening
  66. CT findings for chest wall invasion?
    "Extensive contact between tumor and chest wall (> 3cm or ratio > 0.7)
  67. What passes through the aortic hiatus?
  68. What passes through the esophageal hiatus?
  69. Anterior mediastinal node groups?
    "Internal mammary nodes
  70. Middle mediastinal node groups?
    "Pretracheal or paratracheal nodes
  71. Posterior mediastinal node groups?
    "Paraesophageal nodes
  72. Upper limits of normal for subcarinal lymph node diameter?
    1.5 cm
  73. "Egg-shell calcified mediastinal lymph node
  74. "Calcified mediastinal lymph node
  75. Mediastinal lymph node enhancement?
    "Castleman's disease
  76. Left upper lobe cancers involve what mediastinal lymph node group?
    Aortopulmonary window nodes
  77. Lower lobe lung cancers involve what mediastinal lymph node group?
    Subcarinal nodes
  78. Resectability non-small cell lung cancer stages?
    "Stage IIIb-IV
  79. Sarcoidosis thoracic adenopathy features?
    "Symmetric hilar adenopathy
  80. Prevascular space tumors?
    "4Ts: thymoma
  81. Castleman's disease
    "aka angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia Focal form (Enhancing hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes) Diffuse form (Enhancing mediastinal
  82. CT features of thymoma?
    "Prevascular or paracardiac location
  83. Thymic masses?
  84. Three main categories of germ-cell tumors?
    "1. Teratoma and dermoid cyst
  85. Teratoma versus dermoid cyst?
    "Teratoma contains ecto-
  86. Lymphangioma types?
  87. Saber-sheath trachea features?
    "Narrowed lateral dimension of intrathoracic trachea. COPD
  88. Concentric tracheal narrowing causes?
  89. Bronchogenic and esophageal duplication cyst features?
    "Anomalous budding of foregut. Most commonly within subcarinal space. Esophageal duplication cyst indistinguishable from bronchogenic
  90. Paravertebral neurogenic tumor divisions?
    "1. Peripheral nerve or nerve sheath (neurofibroma
  91. Most common cause of posterior mediastinal mass in patients with neurofibromatosis?
  92. Granulomatous mediastinitis causes?
  93. Sclerosing mediastinitis versus granulomatous mediastinitis
    Similar but no calcification with sclerosing mediastinitis.
  94. Pericardial cyst features?
    "60% anterior right cardiophrenic angle
  95. Morgagni hernia features?
    "Anteromedial diphragmatic foramen of Morgagni. Cardiophrenic angle mass
  96. Right upper lung lobe segments?
    Apical Posterior Anterior
  97. Left upper lung lobe segments?
    Apicoposterior Anterior Superior lingula Inferior lingula
  98. Right middle lung lobe segments?
    Medial Lateral
  99. Right lower lung lobe segments?
    Superior Anterior Medial Lateral Posterior
  100. Left lower lung lobe segemnts
    Superior Anteromedial Lateral Posterior
  101. Egg-shell calcification of thoracic lymph nodes?
  102. Pulmonary agenesis versus pulmonary aplasia?
    Aplasia has rudimentary bronchus.
  103. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula features?
    "Single dilated vascular sac or tangle of dilatated tortuous vessels. Mostly subpleural
  104. Pulmonary sequestration features?
    "Cystic or solid
  105. Intralobar sequestration versus Extralobar sequestration?
    "Intralobar: diagnosed in adults
  106. Hypogenic lung sydrome (scimitar)?
    "almost always on right side
  107. Extraperitoneal space communicates with?
    "Retroperitoneal space
  108. Perineum
    "Lies below pelvic diaphragm
  109. Normal fertile ovary dimensions?
    2 x 3 x 4 cm.
  110. Bladder carcinoma CT features?
    "Focal thickening of bladder wall
  111. Uterine leiomyoma CT features?
    "40% of women > 30 yo
  112. Carcinoma of cervic features?
    "SCC 85%
  113. Endometrial malignancy features?
    "hypodense mass within endometrial cavity
  114. Ovarian cancer features?
    "cystic 66%
  115. Normal ovarian follicle size?
    <3 cm
  116. Functional ovarian cyst features?
    "Benign follicular or corpus luteum cysts
  117. PID CT features?
    "Thickening of fallopian tubes (early)
  118. "Adnexal torsion
    CT features?"
  119. Testicular cancer lymph node involvement?
    "Gonadal lymphatics (testicular veins and renal hilar nodes)
  120. Aberrant right subclavian artery?
    "Left arch
  121. Two types of right aortic arch?
    "Right arch with aberrant left subclavian
  122. Double aortic arch?
    "Vascular ring with dysphagia
  123. Ascending aortic aneurysm causes?
  124. 3 common locations for aortic trauma?
    Aortic root level of ligamentum arteriosum diaphragm and aortic hiatus
  125. Stanford aortic dissection types?
    "Type A--involves ascending aorta (treated surgically: possibility of retrograde dissection and rupture within pericardium or occlusion of coronary or carotid arteries)
  126. DeBakey's aortic dissection types?
    "Type I--entire aorta
  127. Three mediastinum compartments?
    "supra-aortic mediastinum
  128. Mediastinal spaces and recesses?
    "Pretracheal space
  129. Persistent left superior vena cava features?
    "Failure of cardinal vein to regress
  130. Azygos or hemiazygos continuation of IVC?
    "Hemiazygos (polysplenia)
  131. Causes of SVC syndrome?
    "Most commonly bronchogenic carcinoma
  132. Pulmonary artery diameter in pulmonary hypertension?
    ">3 cm
  133. Difference in pulmonary dilatation in pulmonary hypertension and pulmonic stenosis?
    "Pulmonic stenosis--main and left pulmonary arteries dilated. Pulmonary hypertension--mian
  134. Acute PE versus chronic PE at CT?
    "acute PE--clot centered in lumen
  135. Acute pancreatitis CT findings?
    Enlargement decrease in density blurring of margins peripancreatic stranding blurring of fat planes thickening of retroperitoneal fascia
  136. Complications of acute pancreatitis?
    Fluid collections Pseudocysts Necrosis (lack of enhancement) Phlegmon (mass of edema and inflammation) Abscess Hemorrhage Pseudoaneurysms Thrombosis (splenic vein) ascites
  137. Chronic pancreatitis features?
    "Causes (alcohol
  138. CT features of pancreatic adenocarcinoma?
    hypodense mass 96% head > body > tail
  139. Signs of pancreatic adenocarcinoma resectability?
    Isolated pancreatic mass Double duct sign without mass
  140. Signs of pancreatic adenocarcinoma unresectability?
    "Involvement of major arteries or veins. Extension of tumor beyond margins of pancreas
  141. Appendicitis CT features?
    "Distended appendix >6 mm
  142. Differential of RLQ pain without abnormal appendix or appendicolith?
    "Crohn's disease
  143. Complications associated with perforated appendicitis?
    "Phlegmon (periappendiceal soft-tissue mass)
  144. Mucocele of appendix?
  145. Diverticulitis CT features?
  146. Colitides?
    "Ulcerative colitis
  147. CT features of islet cell tumors?
    "Small tumors (<4 cm) enhance. Large tumors heterogeneous with calcification
  148. Functioning islet cell tumors' malignant potential?
    80% glucagonoma 60% gastrinoma 10% insulinoma
  149. CT features of pancreatic lymphoma?
    "Focal tumor
  150. Metastases to pancreas CT features?
    "Round or ovoid Most heterogeneous
  151. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm CT features?
    "Diffuse or segmental dilation of pancreatic duct
  152. Pseudocyst CT features?
    "Most common cystic lesion in and around pancreas
  153. Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm CT features?
    "Middle-aged women
  154. Pancreatic serous cystadenoma CT features?
  155. Splenic cysts?
    "Posttraumatic cyst (most common)
  156. Splenic microabscesses CT features?
    "Multiple low-density lesions
  157. Most common neoplasm of spleen?
  158. Rare primary malignancy of spleen?
  159. Multiple small focal splenic calcifications?
    Histoplasmosis or TB.
  160. Features of esophageal carcinoma?
    "Lack of serosa
  161. Esophageal leiomyoma features?
  162. "Esophageal varices
    CT features?"
  163. Esophagitis causes?
  164. Paraesophageal hernia?
    "Gastric cardia and gastroesophageal junction below esophageal hiatus
  165. Gastric hernia rotations?
    Organoaxial (long axis rotation). Mesenteroaxial (upside down stomach)
  166. Gastric varcies without esophageal varices?
    hallmark findikng of splenic vein thrombosis.
  167. Small bowel malignant tumors?
    "Lymphoma (masses
  168. Crohn's disease CT features?
    "Terminal ileum 80%
  169. Complete mechanical SBO?
    "Dilatation of SB > 2
  170. Paralytic ileus?
    Dilatation of distal and proximal SB without transition zone
  171. Partial mechanical SBO?
    "Transition zone less distinct
  172. Sclerosing mesenteritis features?
    "Inflammatory disorder of unknown cause
  173. Cystic mesenteric masses?
    "Cystic lymphangiomas
  174. Mesenteric neoplasms?
    "Lymphoma (most common)
  175. Colon volvulus types?
    "Sigmoid volvulus (most common
  176. Fibrolammelar Carcinoma CT features?
    Large mass in healthy liver Enhances prominently and heterogeneously Central scar Difficult to distinguish from FNH
  177. Liver lymphoma CT features?
    "Diffuse infiltration
  178. Hepatic adenoma CT features?
    "Young women on oral contraceptives. Men on anabolic steroids. Glycogen storage disease (multiple). Surgical removal for fear of rupture or malignant transformatoin. Unenhanced
  179. FNH CT features?
    "Mini liver central stellate scar and fibrous bands. Unenhanced
  180. Cavernous Hemangioma CT features?
  181. Cystic liver masses?
    Hepatic cysts Pyogenic abscess Amebic abscess Hydatid cyst
  182. Normal bile duct measurements?
    Intrahepatic ducts 2 mm in central liver. Common duct < 6 mm. Give 1 mm per decade in elderly
  183. CT findings of biliary obstruction?
    "Dilated intrahepatic biliary ducts
  184. Precursors of choriocarcinoma?
    Choledochal cyst Primary sclerosing cholangitis Caroli's disease intrahepatic stone disease Clonorchiasis
  185. cholangiocarcinoma CT features?
    "Intrahepatic mass-forming
  186. CT features of primary sclerosing cholangitis?
    "Multiple segmental strictures (beaded appearance) with thickening of bile duct. Complications: obstruction
  187. Choledochal cyst types?
    "Type I
  188. CT findings of acute cholecystitis?
    "Gallstones in gallbladder 75%
  189. Gallbladder carcinoma CT features?
    "Polypoid soft-tissue mass
  190. CT features of lymphoma in abdomen
    "Multiple enlarged nodes
  191. CT features of AIDS in abdomen?
    "Lymphadenopathy (MAI
  192. Surgical indications for splenic trauma?
    "Active bleeding
  193. Cortical rim sign?
    Delayed finding. Faint enhancement of kidney periphery in renal infarction. Renal capsule supplied by separate arteries
  194. Complications of pancreatic trauma?
    Pseudocyst formation hemorrhagic pancreatitis Abscess Fistula
  195. Shock bowel?
    Severe hypotension and hypoperfusion of bowel. Diffuse dilation of small bowel with wall thickening and increased wall enhancement
  196. Extraperitoneal bladder rupture?
    "Contrast leakage into retropubic space
  197. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture?
    Contrast in paracolic gutters and surrounding bowel
  198. Which adrenal gland more susceptible to traumatic injury?
    Right adrenal gland. compression of gland between liver and spine.
  199. Liver segment I?
    "Caudate lobe
  200. Liver segments II and III?
    Lateral division of left lobe. II-superior. III-inferior.
  201. Liver segments IV?
    Medial division of left lobe. IVa-superior. IVb-inferior.
  202. Liver segments V and VIII?
    Anterior segments of right lobe. VIII-superior. V-inferior.
  203. Liver segments VI and VIII?
    Posterior segments of right lobe. VII-superior. VI-inferior.
  204. Third inflow?
    "Areas of liver supplied by aberrant systemic veins. Porta hepatis
  205. Increased liver attenuation?
    "Amiodarone Hemochromatosis (secondary form-hemosiderosis
  206. Liver nodules in cirrhosis?
    Regenerative nodules Dysplastic nodules Small HCC nodules Metastatic disease Hemangiomas
  207. CT features of portal hypertension?
    "Portosystemic collateral vessels Enlarged portal vein
  208. CT features of Budd-Chiari syndrome?
    Enlarged caudate lobe. Central liver enhances early and peripheral liver enhances late.
  209. Clinically significant liver lesions?
    Metastases Hepatoma Hepatic adenoma
  210. Metastases to liver features on CT?
    "Most common liver malignancy. Most commonly from colon. Target appearance. Hypervascular (carcinoid
  211. HCC CT features?
    "50% solitary tumor 30% infiltrative 20% multinodular Small tumors
  212. How much must a renal mass enhance in Hounsfield units before it is considered enhanced?
    10 - 15 H
  213. Metastatic lymph node size in RCC?
    > 2 cm nearly alwasy metastatic 1 - 2 cm indeterminate
  214. Most common sites for RCC metastases?
    lungs mediastinum bone liver contralateral kidney adrenal gland brain
  215. Bosniak cystic renal mass categories?
    Category I Benign simple cyst Category 2 Benign Complicated Category 3 Indeterminate cystic lesions Category 4 Malignant cystic tumors (enhancing soft tissue)
  216. VHL and TS CNS involvement differences?
  217. Emphysematous pyelonephritis versus emphysematous pyelitis?
    "Emphysematous pyelonephritis: diabetes
  218. Renal stone not seen at CT?
    Crystallin stones related to indinavir (protease inhbitor HIV Rx)
  219. What size renal stones can pass on their own?
    < 4 mm nearly always pass. > 8 mm rarely pass.
  220. Tissue rim sign?
    Halo of soft tissue that surrounds ureter stone.
  221. Absence of white pyramids?
    Subtle sign of urinary obstruction on affected side.
  222. Phlebolith distinguishers?
    "tail sign (vein)
  223. Adrenocortical carcinoma features?
    large > 5 cm Necrosis and calcification Delayed contrast washout
  224. Adrenal calcification causes?
    "Children (neuroblastoma
  225. "In adrenal hyperplasia
    adrenal limb thickness exceeds?"
  226. Organ of Zuckerkandl?
    Common location for extra-adrenal pheochromoctyoma. Near origin of IMA
  227. Common metastases to adrenal glands?
    Lung Breast Melanoma
  228. Lipid-rich adrenal adenoma Hounsfield units?
    < 10 H
  229. Lipid-poor adrenal adenoma features?
    Non-contrast H > 10 Enhancement washout > 50% 15 minute post-contrast H < 35
  230. Serous ascites attenuation value in H?
    -10 to +15
  231. Hemoperitoneum attenuation value in H?
  232. "With absence of intrahepatic segment of IVC
    how does lower body venous blood reach the heart?"
  233. Aneurysmal diameters of abdominal aorta and iliac arteries?
    AAA > 3 cm Iliac aneurysm > 1.5 cm
  234. Hyperattenuating crescent sign?
    "Crescent area of high attenuation (dissecting contrast) within wall or intraluminal thrombus of AAA
  235. Beak sign in distinguishing true lumen from false lumen in aortic dissection?
    Intimal flap and false lumen wall create an acute angle: beak sign
  236. Dilatation of vein at site of DVT means acute or chronic?
  237. Abdominal and retrocrural lymph node pathologic size cutoff?
    Abdominal LN > 10 mm. Retrocrural LN > 6 mm
Card Set:
2011-12-22 12:29:59

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