Spinal Anatomy

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kekkel
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124883
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Spinal Anatomy
Updated:
2011-12-23 19:11:53
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  1. List the bony landmarks in the spine?
    • T-2 = superior angle of scapula
    • T-7 = inferior angle of scapula
    • L-4 = top of iliac crest
  2. Which muscles flex the vertebral column?
    • RA
    • External oblique
    • Internal oblique
    • Psoas major
    • Iliacus
  3. Which muscles extend the vertebral column?
    • Longissimus
    • Iliocostalis
    • Multifidus
    • Rotatores
    • Semispinalis Capitus
    • Spinalis
    • QL
    • Interspinalis
    • Intertransversarii
    • Latissimus Dorsi
  4. Which muscles rotate the vertebral column?
    • External oblique
    • Internal oblique (same side)
    • Multifidi
    • Rotatores
  5. Which muscles laterally flex the vertebral column?
    • Iliocostalis
    • External oblique
    • Internal oblique
    • longissimus
    • QL
    • Psoas major
    • Intertransversarii
    • Spinalis
    • Latissimus Dorsi
  6. Which muscles are involved in inhalation?
    • Scalenes
    • Sternocleidomastoid
    • External intercostals
    • Serratus posterior superior
    • Pec major
    • Pec minor
    • Serratus anterior
    • subclavius
  7. Which muscles are involved in exhalation?
    • Internal intercostals
    • Serratus posterior inferior
  8. What are the three branches of the erector spinae group?
    • spinalis
    • longissimus
    • iliocostalis
  9. Where does spinalis lie?
    Lamina groove of the spine.
  10. Where do the tendons of iliocostalis extend?
    Beneath the scapula
  11. What are the erector spinae group deep to in the lumbar spine?
    thoracolumbar aponeurosis
  12. What are the erector spinae group deep to in the cervical and thoracic spine?
    • trapezius
    • rhomboids
    • serratus posterior
  13. What are the actions of the erector spinae group?
    • uni - lateral flexion
    • bi - extension
  14. What is the origin and insertion of spinalis cervicis?
    • O - ligamentum nuchae, C7 SP
    • I - Cervicals SP (except C1)
  15. What is the origin and insertion of spinalis thoracis?
    • O - SP of upper lumbar and lower thoracic
    • I - SP of upper thoracic
  16. What is the origin and insertion of longissimus thoracis?
    • O - common tendon
    • I - thoracic TP and lower 9 ribs
  17. What is the origin and insertion of longissimus cervicis?
    • O - upper 5 thoracic TP
    • I - cervical TP
  18. What is the origin and insertion of longissumus capitis?
    • O - upper 5 thoracic TP
    • I - mastoid process of temporal bone
  19. What is the origin and insertion of iliocostalis lumborum?
    • O - common tendon
    • I - lumbar 1-3 TP and ribs 6-12 posterior surface
  20. What is the origin and insertion of iliocostalis thoracis?
    • O - Ribs 1-12 posterior surface
    • I - Ribs 1-6 posterior surface
  21. What is the origin and insertion of iliocostalis cervicis?
    • O - Ribs 1-12 posterior surface
    • I - Lower cervicals TP
  22. What muscle group is deep to the erector spinae group?
    • Transversospinalis group
    • multifidi
    • rotatores
    • semispinalis
  23. What are the actions of the transversospinalis group?
    • Uni - rotate to the opposite side
    • Bi - extension
  24. Which nerve innervates mulitifidi and rotatores?
    Spinal nn
  25. What is the origin and insertion of Multifidi?
    • O - sacrum and TPs
    • I - SPs 2-4 vertebrae above
  26. What is the origin and insertion of Rotatores?
    • O - TPs
    • I - SPs 1-2 vertebrae above
  27. What is the action of semispinalis capitus?
    Extends the head and vertebral column
  28. Which nerve innervates semispinalis capitus?
    Cervical nn
  29. What is the origin and insertion of Semispinalis Capitis?
    • O - TPs C4 - T5
    • I - b/w superior and inferior nuchal lines of occiput
  30. Where are the multifidi directly accessible?
    • lumbar spine
    • only muscles with fibers lying across the sacrum posterior surface
  31. What are the rotatares deep to?
    Multifidi
  32. When can semispinalis capitus be easily seen?
    When the neck is extended against resistance
  33. Which direction do splenii fibers run?
    Obliquely
  34. What is the splenius capitus deep to?
    • Traps
    • Rhomboids
  35. Where are the splenius capitus fibers superficial?
    Between traps and SCM
  36. What is splenius cervicis deep to?
    Splenius capitus
  37. What are the actions of splenius capitus and cervicis?
    • Uni - rotate to same side, lateral flexion
    • Bi - extend head and neck
  38. Which nerve innervates splenius capitus and cervicis?
    Cervical nn
  39. What is the origin and insertion of splenius capitis?
    • O - inferior 1/2 of ligamentum nuchae and SPs C7 - T4
    • I - mastoid process and lateral portion of superior nuchal line

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