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Nutrigenetics is concerned with the effect of gene variations on the organism's functional ability, specifically its ability to digest, absorb, and use food to sustain life. (ch 1 p.29)
Nutrigenomics is concerned with how bioactive components within food affect gene expression and function. (ch 1 p.29)
The study of how genes and drugs interact. (ch 1 p.29)
A process by which food is broken down mechanically and chemically in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Digestion ultimately provides nutrients ready for absorption into the body through the cells of the GI tract, principally the cells of the small intestine (enterocytes). Secretions required to digest nutrients are produced by multiple organs of the GI tract. These secretions include principally enzymes, but also hydrochloric acid important for gastric digestion, and bicarbonate and bile important for digestion and absorption in the intestine. (ch 2 p. 59-61)
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (heartburn)
Reflux or backward flow of gastric contents (acidic chyme) from the stomach to the esophagus.
Recurrent reflux of gastric contents, including hydrochloric acid, into the esophagus from the stomach can damage and inflame the esophageal mucosa and result in reflux esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus caused by the refluxed gastric contents).
Avoid substances that reduce gastroesphageal sphincter pressure, that promote the secretion of acid, and that can irritate an inflamed esophagus while increasing the intake of foods or nutrients that increase gastroesophageal sphincter pressure.
- Decrease: high-fat foods, chocolate, coffee, tea, alcohol, carminatives, citrus, acidic foods, and spices.
- Increase: protein (not dairy) (ch 2 p. 59-61)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease
Characterized by acute, reapsing, or chronic inflammation of various segments of the GI tract, especially the intestines.
Nutrient malabsorption is the major problem due to impaired nutrient digestion, decreased transit time of nutrients, and thus malabsorption of nutrients.
Dietary recommendations for people with IBD are aimed at replacing nutrient losses, correcting nutrient imbalances, and improving nutrient status. (ch 2 p. 59-61)
Celiac Disease (also called gluten- or gliadin-sensitive enteropathy or celiac sprue)
Results from an intolerance to gluten.
Gluten is the general name for storage proteins, also called prolamins, in grains (BROW - Barley, Rye, Oats, Wheat).
- Secalin in rye
- Hordein in barley
- Gliadin in wheat
- Avenin in oats (mostly in younger people)
Consuming any of the grains triggers both immune and inflammatory responses - the small intestine becomes inflamed among many other possible conditions including rash, diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, reflux, fertility problems etc... (ch 2 p. 59-61)
Sections of pancreatic tissue become dysfunctional. For example, acinar cells can ultimately fail to produce sufficient digestive enzymes and juices.
Diminished secretion of pancreatic lipase into the duodenum results in maldigestion of fat and thus malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. Thus, the insufficiency of enzymes available for fat hydrolysis necessitates a low-fat diet.
The exocrine portion of the pancreas produces several enzymes needed to digest all nutrients. A person with the chronic pancreatitis experiences severe pain, especially with eating, as well as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. (ch 2 p. 59-61)