Psychology Definitions #2

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  1. Ontology
    A theory dealing with the nature of existence, of being
  2. Evolution
    The gradual process by which species develop from earlier forms
  3. Psychological characteristic
    A particular aspect of human behaviour or thinking
  4. Natural selection
    The principle that the organisms which are best adapted to their environments will live to reproduce the most viable offspring.
  5. Sexual selection
    The process whereby physical and behavioural characteristics which promote reproductive success (and the genes which code for these) are passed on to descendants
  6. Hominines
    All members of the human group, including humans themselves and their fossil ancestors
  7. Theory of mind
    The ability to explain and predict the actions both of oneself and others; put oneself mentally in the place of another
  8. Development trajectory
    The path or route that infants and children are expected to follow in relation to developmental changes
  9. Kin selection
    Theory that people are more likely to help blood relatives in difficult situations because this increases the odds that their genes will be transmitted to subsequent generations. The closer the relation between the people, the greater the likelihood that help will be given.
  10. Inclusive fitness
    A measure of an individual’s genes passing on to future generations directly via offspring and indirectly via other relatives
  11. Reciprocal altruism
    Benefiting others who are not kin and where the altruist benefits directly (evolutionary psychology)
  12. Indirect reciprocity
    Behaviour that benefits others who are not kin and where the altruist does not benefit directly
  13. Comparative approach
    The study of different species of animal to establish general and specific features of behaviour
  14. Behaviourism
    A tradition advocating that psychology should be a science of behaviour, based on observable events
  15. Artificial stimuli
    Stimuli devised by the experimenter in order to have no intrinsic meaning
  16. Ecological validity
    The extent to which a study reflects naturally occurring or everyday situations
  17. Natural categories
    Categories that occur naturally and are not invented or devised by the experimenter
  18. Nativism
    The belief that knowledge is largely innate
  19. Empiricism
    A philosophical theory believing that knowledge should be based on evidence that is observerable i.e. received via the senses
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Psychology Definitions #2
Psychology Definitions #2
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