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Skeletal system five primary functions. (P2LS2)
- Production of blood cells
- Storage of minerals and lipids
Name the bone shape that is long and slender.
Ex) arm, forearm, thigh, leg, palms of hands, soles of feet, fingers, and toes.
Name the bone shape that is small and boxy.
Ex) carpals and tarsals.
Name the bone shape that have roughly parallel surfaces. Ex) skull, sternum, ribs, and scapula.
Name the bone shape that is comprised of complex shapes, notches, and ridged surfaces.
Ex) vertebrae, pelvis, and several skull bones
Name the bone shape that is flat, small, and irregularly shaped. These are also referred to as Wormian bones.
Ex) found between the flat bones of the skull
Name the bone shape that are flat, small, and shaped somewhat like a sesame seed. These develop inside tendons.
Ex) found near the joints of the knees, hands, and feet.
Name the most abundant mineral in the human body.
A typical individual usually contains 1-2 kg of this.
Name the part of the bone that is the extended tubular shaft.
Name the part of the bone that is the expanded area at each end.
Name the part of the bone where diaphysis and epiphysis meet.
Name the loose connective tissue that is in the cavity of the diaphysis.
Name the cartilage that narrows until it disappears.
This disappearance signals the end of bone growth.
Name the incomplete cellular level that lines the marrow cavity.
It also covers the trabeculae of spongy bone.
Another term also used for the marrow cavity
Name used for a mature bone cell.
Area that each osteocyte occupies
Name the narrow passageways that connect osteocytes for purposes of nutrient supply and waste disposal.
Name the basic functional unit of mature compact bone.
Also referred to as Haversian system.
Cells that actually take organic components and produce the matrix via osteogenisis
Osteoblasts produce new bone matrix in a process called
Giant cells (with 50 or more nuclei) that remove bone matrix
Cells that break-down and remove bone matrix
The process of bone erosion, also called resorption.
Soft matrix that has not had calcium salts deposited yet
Two types of osseous tissue
In an osteon, how are the ostyocytes arranged?
They are arranged in concentric layers around a central canal (AKA Haversian canal).
Type of bone which is thickest where stresses arrive from a limited range of directions
Type of bone that forms an open network of struts and plates.
Also referred to as cancellous.
Structure that the struts and plates of spongy bone form
Process of replacing tissue with bone.
Two types of ossification.
Type of ossification that occurs when bone develops directly from mesenchymal cells or fibrous connective tissue.
Type of ossification that are responsible for the formation of dermal bones.
Name three examples of dermal bones. (MS. C)
Type of ossification in which bone replaces existing cartilage.
Process of deposition of calcium salts. Happens during ossification but also occurs in other tissues.
Type of bone growth that increases a bone's diameter.
Name the occurrence that happens which triggers the parathyroid gland to release PTH into the bloodstream.
Ca ion concentration falls below normal levels
Name 3 effects that the release of PTH ensures. (SID)
- Stimuate osteoclast activity
- Increase intestinal absorption of Ca
- Decrease Ca excretion by kidneys
Name the occurrence that happens which triggers the thyroid gland to release calcitonin.
Ca ion concentration rises above normal levels
Name 2 effects that the release of calcitonin ensures.
- Inhibit osteoclast activity
- Increase Ca excretion by kidneys
3 hormones that are released to stimulate bone growth at puberty. (STG)
- sex hormones
- thyroid hormones
- growth hormones
Effects of exercise on bones
- Heavily stressed bones become thicker and stronger
- Regular exercise is important to maintain normal bone structure.
Condition that is the result of the over-production of growth hormones before puberty.
Percent of the bone is made up of calcium
Percent of our body's calcium content is stored in the bones
What happens in our body when the calcium ion concentration in the blood falls below normal?
Cells of the parathyroid glands, embedded in the thyroid gland in the neck, release parathyroid hormone (PTH) into the bloodstream.
The parathyroid (PTH) hormone has three major effects which increase blood calcium levels. (SID)
- Stimulating osteoclast activity
- Increasing the rate of intestinal absorption of calcium ions
- Decreasing the rate of excretion of calcium ions at the kidneys
What happens in our body when the calcium ion concentration rises above normal?
Parafollicular cells (or C cells) in the thyroid gland secrete calcitonin.
Two majors functions of calcitonin to decrease the calcium ion concentration
- Inhibiting osteoclast activity
- Increasing the rate of excretion of calcium ions at the kidneys
Bone fracture that is completely internal, keeping the ends of the bone closed.
Bone fracture where only one side of the shaft is broken and the other is bent.
Name the condition that is linked to inadequate ossification. Quite common as an individual ages.
Name the condition that entails a loss in bone mass that prohibits normal, every-day functioning.
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