ch 6.txt

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lenorerox84
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125147
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ch 6.txt
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2011-12-27 22:50:45
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SCIT 1407 anatomy physiology
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The Skeletal System: Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structure
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  1. Skeletal system five primary functions. (P2LS2)
    • Production of blood cells
    • Protection
    • Leverage
    • Support
    • Storage of minerals and lipids
  2. Name the bone shape that is long and slender.
    Ex) arm, forearm, thigh, leg, palms of hands, soles of feet, fingers, and toes.
    Long bones
  3. Name the bone shape that is small and boxy.
    Ex) carpals and tarsals.
    Short bones
  4. Name the bone shape that have roughly parallel surfaces. Ex) skull, sternum, ribs, and scapula.
    Flat bones
  5. Name the bone shape that is comprised of complex shapes, notches, and ridged surfaces.
    Ex) vertebrae, pelvis, and several skull bones
    Irregular
  6. Name the bone shape that is flat, small, and irregularly shaped. These are also referred to as Wormian bones.
    Ex) found between the flat bones of the skull
    Sutural bones
  7. Name the bone shape that are flat, small, and shaped somewhat like a sesame seed. These develop inside tendons.
    Ex) found near the joints of the knees, hands, and feet.
    sesamoid bones
  8. Name the most abundant mineral in the human body.
    A typical individual usually contains 1-2 kg of this.
    calcium
  9. Name the part of the bone that is the extended tubular shaft.
    diaphysis
  10. Name the part of the bone that is the expanded area at each end.
    epiphysis
  11. Name the part of the bone where diaphysis and epiphysis meet.
    metaphysis
  12. Name the loose connective tissue that is in the cavity of the diaphysis.
    bone marrow
  13. Name the cartilage that narrows until it disappears.
    This disappearance signals the end of bone growth.
    epiphyseal
  14. Name the incomplete cellular level that lines the marrow cavity.
    It also covers the trabeculae of spongy bone.
    endosteum
  15. Another term also used for the marrow cavity
    medullary cavity
  16. Name used for a mature bone cell.
    osteocyte
  17. Area that each osteocyte occupies
    lacuna
  18. Name the narrow passageways that connect osteocytes for purposes of nutrient supply and waste disposal.
    canaliculi
  19. Name the basic functional unit of mature compact bone.
    Also referred to as Haversian system.
    osteon
  20. Cells that actually take organic components and produce the matrix via osteogenisis
    osteoblasts
  21. Osteoblasts produce new bone matrix in a process called
    osteogenesis
  22. Giant cells (with 50 or more nuclei) that remove bone matrix
    osteoclasts
  23. Cells that break-down and remove bone matrix
    osteoclasts
  24. The process of bone erosion, also called resorption.
    osteolysis
  25. Soft matrix that has not had calcium salts deposited yet
    osteoid
  26. Two types of osseous tissue
    • compact bone
    • spongy bone
  27. In an osteon, how are the ostyocytes arranged?
    They are arranged in concentric layers around a central canal (AKA Haversian canal).
  28. Type of bone which is thickest where stresses arrive from a limited range of directions
    compact bone
  29. Type of bone that forms an open network of struts and plates.
    Also referred to as cancellous.
    spongy bone
  30. Structure that the struts and plates of spongy bone form
    trabeculae
  31. Process of replacing tissue with bone.
    ossification
  32. Two types of ossification.
    • Intramembranous
    • Endochondral
  33. Type of ossification that occurs when bone develops directly from mesenchymal cells or fibrous connective tissue.
    intramembranous
  34. Type of ossification that are responsible for the formation of dermal bones.
    intramembranous
  35. Name three examples of dermal bones. (MS. C)
    • mandible
    • skull
    • clavicle
  36. Type of ossification in which bone replaces existing cartilage.
    endochondral
  37. Process of deposition of calcium salts. Happens during ossification but also occurs in other tissues.
    calcification
  38. Type of bone growth that increases a bone's diameter.
    appositional
  39. Name the occurrence that happens which triggers the parathyroid gland to release PTH into the bloodstream.
    Ca ion concentration falls below normal levels
  40. Name 3 effects that the release of PTH ensures. (SID)
    • Stimuate osteoclast activity
    • Increase intestinal absorption of Ca
    • Decrease Ca excretion by kidneys
  41. Name the occurrence that happens which triggers the thyroid gland to release calcitonin.
    Ca ion concentration rises above normal levels
  42. Name 2 effects that the release of calcitonin ensures.
    • Inhibit osteoclast activity
    • Increase Ca excretion by kidneys
  43. 3 hormones that are released to stimulate bone growth at puberty. (STG)
    • sex hormones
    • thyroid hormones
    • growth hormones
  44. Effects of exercise on bones
    • Heavily stressed bones become thicker and stronger
    • Regular exercise is important to maintain normal bone structure.
  45. Condition that is the result of the over-production of growth hormones before puberty.
    Gigantism
  46. Percent of the bone is made up of calcium
    39%
  47. Percent of our body's calcium content is stored in the bones
    99%
  48. What happens in our body when the calcium ion concentration in the blood falls below normal?
    Cells of the parathyroid glands, embedded in the thyroid gland in the neck, release parathyroid hormone (PTH) into the bloodstream.
  49. The parathyroid (PTH) hormone has three major effects which increase blood calcium levels. (SID)
    • Stimulating osteoclast activity
    • Increasing the rate of intestinal absorption of calcium ions
    • Decreasing the rate of excretion of calcium ions at the kidneys
  50. What happens in our body when the calcium ion concentration rises above normal?
    Parafollicular cells (or C cells) in the thyroid gland secrete calcitonin.
  51. Two majors functions of calcitonin to decrease the calcium ion concentration
    • Inhibiting osteoclast activity
    • Increasing the rate of excretion of calcium ions at the kidneys
  52. Bone fracture that is completely internal, keeping the ends of the bone closed.
    closed/simple fracture
  53. Bone fracture where only one side of the shaft is broken and the other is bent.
    greenstick fracture
  54. Name the condition that is linked to inadequate ossification. Quite common as an individual ages.
    osteopenia
  55. Name the condition that entails a loss in bone mass that prohibits normal, every-day functioning.
    osteoporosis

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