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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
- Symptoms fall within two clusters:
- - Attention/distractibility
- - Overactivity and impulsiveness/readiness to frustration
More boys affected than girls. Ritalin helps (amphetimine that stimulates the underaroused portion of the brain)
Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder
ODD: a persistent pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior.
CD: a more severe pattern, which includes more acting out and greater disregard for others' rights or social norms. Those whose conduct disorder is early emerging and severe (more acting out and the acts are more serious), tend to show a developmental pattern of Oppositional Defiant Disorder followed by Conduct Disorder followed by Antisocial Personality Disorder in adulthood
Anxiety in childhood
Anxiety disorders are relatively common in childhood. These children typical present as fearful of novelty, easily upset, quick to tears, and socially reluctant and clingy.
- Two childhood disorders are:
- Overanxious Disorder: General anxiety features are present, usually evident across setting, and a clear precipitant is lacking.
- Separation Anxiety Disorder: Particular anxiety arising from some environmental change, usually separation from a primary figure, often accompanied by general anxiety features.
Depression in childhood
- Whereas depressed mood or obvious sadness may be a less common observable symptom, more common are symptoms like acting out
- (especially in boys), social withdrawal, irritability, and low self-esteem.
Causal factors include:
- - Biological predisposition (childhood depression often develops into adult depression).
- - Loss (anaclitic depression) or poor attachment.
- - Possibly reaction to a depressed caregiver (modeling) or unusual stressors.
Enuresis and Encopresis
Enu: Excessive wetting, including bed wetting
Enc: Poopin' yo pants
A conditioning technique to teach the child to wake up when they need to urinate. The child sleeps on a pad consisting of two perforated metal plates, with a cloth insulator between the plates. Each plate is connected to a bell and a battery. When the child begins urination, the circuit between the two plates is completed, setting off the bell.
Early Childhood Autism
Refers to behavior that is unresponsive to the world around the child. The impairment can vary but is usually regarded as severe.
- Major symptoms include:
- Communication deficiencies: These children are especially slow to develop language skills, and often have an aversion to using language; sound may be attractive (for example, echolalia, breaking glass), but not for the purpose of communicating with others.
- Preference for sameness: They often react to novelty as distasteful, perhaps with temper tantrums; the children make it clear that they require a particular environment and regimen.
- Self-stimulation, repetition: Highly repetitive, self-stimulatory behaviors, such as watching one's fingers or plate spinning, are common.
- Preference for things over people: There seems to be an aversion to other people, especially in the form of physical contact and prolonged social interaction; in contrast, they often enjoy objects, at times in a way that defies the original purpose.
Significant deficits in cognitive ability. It differs from the brain disorders in that it is developmental, occurring at birth or early in life. Strictly speaking, MR is diagnosed on the basis of two criteria, IQ and level of adaptive functioning.
IQ ranges: Mild 55-70, Moderate 40-55, Severe 25-40, Profound <25
Pervasive developmental disorder characterized by impairments in social relationships and restricted or unusual behaviors but without language delays seen in autism.
Childhood disintegrative disorder
Pervasive developmental disorder involving severe regression in language, adaptive behavior and motor skills after a 2 to 4 year normal development.
Vocal tic characterized by the involuntary repetition of obscenities.
Mild mental retardation that may be caused largely by environmental influences.
Repetition or echoing of the speech of others, a normal intermediate step in the development of speech skill. Originally though to be a unique symptom of autism, it is now seen as evidence of developmental delay involved in that disorder.
Fragile X syndrome
Patter of abnormality caused by a defect in the X chormosome resulting in mental retardation, learning problems and unusual physical characteristics.
Maintenance of sameness
necessity among people with autism that their familiar environments remain unchanged; they become upset when changes are introduced.
Communicated material that is understood.
Progressive neurological developmental disorder featuring constant hand-wringing, mental retardation and impaired motor skills.
Developmental disorder characterized by the individual's consistent failure to speak in specific social situations despite speaking in other situations.
Disruption in early development involving involuntary motor movements or vocalizations.
Developmental disorder featuring multiple dysfunctional motor and vocal tics.