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What is the corret name of this formation?
What does the colored area represent
What does the colored area represent?
What does the colored area represent
The brain stem
What are the 4 regions of the brain?
- 1. Cerebral hemisphere
- 2. Diencephalon
- 3. Cerebellum
- 4. Brain Stem
What three parts make up the Diencephalon?
- 1. Thalamus
- 2. Hypothalamus
- 3. Epithalamus
- *Pineal Gland
What are the functions of the thalamus? (2)
- 1. Recieves afferent impulses from all the senses and parts of the body
- 2. Relays impulses to and from the cortex
Where is the Hypothalamus located and what are it's functions (6)?
- located below the thalamus (indundibulum connects it to the pituitary gland)
- It is the main control center of the body
- 1. heart muscle
- 2. smooth muscle
- 3.glandular secreationnaturally and chemically form the pitutary4. body temp
- 5. hunger and thirst
- 6. sleep and wake cycles
what does the epithalamus consist of (2) and what are it's functions(2)?
- pineal gland
- choroid plexus
- Pineal secreates melatonin (sleep inducing signal)
- Choroid Plexus secretes CFS
What three parts make up the brain stem
- 1. Midbrain
- 2. Pons
- 3. Medulla Oblongala
what are the functions of the midbrain? (2)
- helps control and coordinate movement
- contains the reticular formation
What is the function of the Reticular formation? (3)
- It is the awareness center
- sends messages to the cortex to keep it awake
- filters out 99% of all input to keep us focused
What disease affects the reticular formation?
What is the Pons made of and what does it connect (2)?
- 1. higher brain centers with spinal cord
- 2. motor cortex with the cerebellum
What is the Medulla Oblongata function(2) and what do it's centers control (3)
- 1. crossover point for motor neurons from the cortex
- 2. Crucial role in homeostasis
- centers control
- 1. force and rate of cardiac contraction
- 2. rate and depth of breathing
- 3. vomiting, swallowing, and sneezing
How many ventricles are there and how do they drain (4)?
- there are 4 of them
- *paired lateral ventricles
- *drains to third ventricles though interventricular foramen
- *from third to fourth ventricle through cerebral aqueduct
- *fourth ventricle continues into the spinal cord in the central canal
Name the three layers of the Cerebral Hemisphere and explain them
- 1. Cortex - Thin gray matter on the outside
- 2. White matter - Under cortex
- 3. Basal nuclei - Islands of gray in the white matter
what are the 3 functional areas of the cerebral cortex
- 1. Motor areas
- 2. Sensory areas
- 3. Association areas
elevated ridges in the gross tissue structure of the cerebral hemisphere
shallow grooves in the gross tissue structure of the cerebral hemispheres
Where are the motor areas of the cerebral cortex found and what do they do (3)?
- they are found anterior to the cental sulcus
- Primary motor cortex is in the precental gyrus
- 1. It controls voluntary movements
- 2. Descending tracts project from here to spinal cord and transmit motor information
- 3. Premotor cortex controls learned motor skills
Where are the sensory areas of the ceberal cortex and what do they do
- They are found posterior to the central sulcus
- The primary somatosensory cortex is found in the post central gyrus
- 1. Recieves sensory information from skin and proprioceptors (position and movement) in skeletal muscles
What does the somatosensory association cortex do?
Integrates sensory inputs so what is felt is understood (size shape, temp)
Where are the Primary Visual Cortex and Visual Association Areas located
They cover most of the occipital lobe
Where are the Primary Auditory and Auditory Association Areas located?
On the superior portion of the temporal lobe
Where is the Olfactory (smell) Cortex located?
above orbits on the medial aspect of the temporal lobe
What occurs in the association areas of the brain (3)?
information, language, and general interpretation
why is white matter white?
because of the myelin in it
white matter is responsible for communications between...(2)
- ceberal areas
- between cortex and lower CNS centers
What is White Matter made of
myelinated fibers bundled into large tracts
What do Commissures do?
connect left and right hemispheres together
What do association fibers do?
Connect different parts of the same hemisphere
What do Projection fibers do?
Connect cerebral hemispheres with lower brain or spinal cord
What are the functions in Motor control (3)?
- 1. Intensity of movement
- 2. Starting and stopping movements
- 3. Inhibit unnecessary movements
What do disorders of the Basal Nuclei cause and give 2 examples .
they cause to much or to little movement
- Parkinson's disease
- Huntington's disease
What is the Cerebellum consist of (1) and what is it's function (2)?
fibers that enter stay on the same side ipsilateral
provides precise timing for smooth coordinated movements
What does the limbic system consist of and what is it's function?
structures that encircle the brain with connections to higher and lower areas
it is our emotional center
what would occur if our brain was continually bombarded with emotional stimuli?
What are the 4 things that protect our brains?
- 1. meninges
- 2. CSF
- 3. Blood-brain barrier
- 4. Skull
What are the functions of the meninges? (4)
- * cover and protect
- *protect blood vessels and venous sinuses
- *contain CSF
- *form partitions on the skull
What are the 3 layers of the meninges?
- 1. Dura Mater "hard mother"
- 2. Arachnoid Mater "spidery mother"
- 3. Pia Mater "loving mother"
Where is the dura mater located and what does it do?
thick outer layer
forms dural sinuses where CSF drains back into the blood
Where is Arachnoid mater located and what does it do?
space below is filled with CSF the space has the largest blood vessel that goes to the brain
Where is the Pia mater located and describe it?
layer in direct contact with the brain
thin with small blood vessels
Where is CSF found and what are it's functions (3)?
It is found around the brain and in the spinal cord
- 1. cushions the brain
- 2. floats brain
- 3. Nourishes the brain
Where is CSF made and how much is in and around the brain?
It is made in the chorodid plexus that hang from the roof of the ventricles
150 ml in and around the brain
Where does the CSF circulate and where is the most of it found
it circulates in ventricles and subarachnoid space
most is found in subarachnoid space and it bathes the outter surface of the brain
What is the Blood-Brain barrier formed by? (3)
- 1. Continuous endothelium inside cappillaries
- 2. Thick outter layer surrounding cappillaries
- 3. Tight processes of astrocytes surrounding cappillaries astricytes function in connecting neurons to blood supply
The Blood-Brain Barrier is selective what does this mean and why is it both good and bad?
It only allows some things to diffuse through it
- it is good because it allows good things in and the bad things are kept out
- it is bad because sometimes things like medications can't get in when you need them to
Gross anatomy of the spinal cord (6)
- 1. Has pathways to and from the brain
- 2. Starts at the foramen magnum
- 3. Continuation of neurons and neuronal processes from the brain stem down to L1 or L24. Has white and gray matter
- 5. Covered buy continuation of meninges
- 6. After it wnds spinal nerves continue on to supply lower extremities
Name the parts and the function from a cross section piece of spinal cord (3)
Gray matter centrally forms an H shape
- Anterior horns: relay motor information from brain to muscle
- Posterior horns: relay sensory information from the body and organs to the brain
- Lateral horns: relay motor messages fromt he brain to organs and glands
Where do sensory nerves enter and connect?
with posterior horns
where do motor nerves exit?
anteriorly from the anterior horns
what are spinal nerves made from?
nerve roots joined together
What is White matter composed of? What does it connect with?
myelinatedc and unmyelinated fibers that connect with the brain and other spinal levels
What are the 3 colomns of white matter?
- 1. Posterior funiculus
- 2. Anterior funiculus
- 3. Lateral funiculus
What is the function of Ascending pathways? What is anothe name for it?
Carries sensory information to the brain
What is the path of Ascending pathways? (6)
- 1. Starts at receptora in the skin or muscle then connects and runs to spinal cord
- 2. Cell bodies of these neurons found in the dorsal root ganglion
- 3. from spinal cord pathway it runs to the brain
- 4. Crosses over in spinal cord to opposite side
- 5. transmitts impulsesw to thalamus or cerebellum
- 6. from thalamus, ascending pathway continues to somatosensory cortex in the posterior portion of the ceberal hemisphere where it is interpreted
summerize the ascending pahway (3)
- 1. begins at sensory receptor in skin or organ
- 2. carries sensory information
- 3. terminates in the brain posterior to the central sulcus
What is the funcion of descending pathways and what is another name for it?
carries motor information
how do Decending pathways work?
they Cross to opposite sides in either the medulla or at the spinal cord level, it then connects with the anterior horn cells of gray matter in the spinal cord.
comparison of Ascending and Descending Neural Pathways
startpoint: sensory receptors... brain anterior to central sulcus
type of info: sensory... motor
- termination point: brain posterior to muscle or organ
- ...central slucus