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Evolution (or organismic evolution)
is about changes in populations, species, or groups of species. More specifically, evolution occurs because populations vary by the frequency of heritable traits that appear from one generation to the next
(one of two areas of evolutionary study) describes the details of how populations of organisms change from generation to generation and how new species originate
(one of two areas of evolutionary study) describes patterns of change in groups of related species over broad periods of geologic time. The patterns determine phylogeny
the evolutionary relationships among species and groups of species
- one of the earliest advocates for evolutionary ideas. His theory included the following three important ideas:
- 1.) Use and disuse2.) Inheritance of acquired charecteristics
- 3.) Natural transformation of species
Use and Disuse
(one-of-three important ideas of Lamarck's theory) describes how body parts of organisms can develop with increased usage, while unused parts weaken. This idea was correct, as is commonly observed among athletes who train for competitions
Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
(one-of-three important ideas of Lamarck's theory) descrides how body features acquire during the lifetime of an organism (such as muscle bulk) could be passed on to offspring. This, however, was incorrect. Only changes in the genetic material of cells can be passed on to offspring.
Natural Trnasformation of Species
(one-of-three important ideas of Lamarck's theory) describes how organisms produced offspring with changes, transforming each subsequent generation into a slightly different form toward some ultimate, higher order of complexity. Species did not become extinct nor did they split and change into two or more species. This idea was incorrect.
Darwin's theory of evolution ("survival of the fittest"), was the driving force of ecolution is now called Darwinism
Darwin's theoryt of natural selection of "survival of the fittest" is the driving force of evolution. Later, genetics was incorporated into evolutionary thinking, creating new, more comprehensive view of evolution, now variously called neo-Darwinism, the synthetic theory of evolution, or the modern synthesis.
- (one of five scientific disciplines that provides evidence for evolution) provides fossils that reveal the prehistoric existence of extinct species. As a result, changes in species and the formation of new species can be studied.
- -Fossil deposits are often found among sediment layers, where the deepest fossils represent the oldest speciments
- -For example, fossil oysters removed from successive layers of sediment show gradual changes in the size of the oyster shell alternating with rapid changes in shell size. Large, rapid changes produced new species.