Psych Ch. 6 Final

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  1. Endorphins
  2. Parts of neurons
    nucleus, cell body, dendrites, myelin sheath, axon, axon terminals, and synapse
  3. Cell body
    • contains the nucleus
    • produces energy to fuel neuron activity
  4. Dendrites
    • short, thin fibers that stick out from the cell body
    • recieve impulses/messages from other neurons
  5. Axon
    carries impulses away from the cell body towards the dendrites of another neuron
  6. Myelin sheath
    insulates and protects the axon in the neuron
  7. Axon terminals
    • small fibers that branch out at the end of the axon
    • positioned opposite of dendrites of another neuron
  8. Synapse
    gap that occurs between individual nerve cells
  9. Somatic nervous system
    • part of the peripheral nervous system
    • controls voluntary movement
  10. Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    • part of the peripheral nervous system
    • controls internal biological functions
  11. The Brain*
    • hindbrain(cerebellum, medula, pons)
    • midbrain(above pons, sends info, upward)
    • forebrain(thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebrum, limbiac sys.)
  12. Cerebellum
    helps control posture & balance
  13. Medulla
    Controls breathing & reflexes
  14. Pons
    bridge to interconnect messages between the spinal cord & brain
  15. Thalamus
    • part of the forebrain
    • sends sensory info. other than smell to appropriate areas of the cortex
  16. Hypothalamus
    • below the thalamus
    • controls hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, and body temperature
  17. Amygdala
    controls violent emotions like rage & violence
  18. Hippocampus
    important in the formation of memories
  19. Limbic System*
    hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus, & hippocampus
  20. Corpus callosum
    band of fibers connecting the cerebral hemisphere
  21. Left brain
    Mathematical ability, calcuation, logic
  22. Right brain
    • visual & spatial relations (Ex.- putting together a puzzle)
    • music & art
    • creativity & intuition
  23. CAT scans
    • used to study brain
    • -pinpoint injuries & brain deterioration
  24. PET scans
    used to see areas of brain that activate while performing tasks
  25. MRI
    used to study brain structure & activity
  26. fMRI
    • like MRI, except doesnt use radio frequencies, better picture
    • see functions of structures of the brain & which participate in specific functions
  27. Hypothyroidism
    • too little thyroxine produced by the thyroid gland
    • makes people feel lazy & lethargic
  28. Hyperthyroidism
    • too much thyroxine produced by the thyroid gland
    • can cause people to lose weight, sleep, and be overactive
  29. Identical twins
    • twins from one fertilized egg
    • have the same genes
  30. Fraternal twins
    twins from two different eggs fertilized separately
  31. Heredity
    passing of characteristics from parents to their offspring
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Psych Ch. 6 Final
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