Psych Ch. 9 Final

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  1. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
    an event that has a certain predictable response without previous training
  2. Unconditioned response (UCS)
    • an automatic/ natural reaction to a stimulus
    • Ex-salivation of dog when smells meat
  3. Conditioned stimulus(CS)
    • once neutral event that gives a respones after a period of trainging where it has been paired w/ an unconditioned stimulus
    • Ex- bell causing salivation because rang when time to eat
  4. Conditioned response (CR)
    the learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus (bell ringing salivation)
  5. Generalization
    • responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli
    • Ex- respond to circle and oval
  6. Discrimination
    • ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli
    • Ex- circle but not oval
  7. Extinction
    • gradual disappearance of conditioned response when conditioned stimulus repeatedly presented w/out unconditioned stimulus
    • Ex- ring bell, no food
  8. Spontaneous recovery
    conditioned response (CR) reappearing when the conditioned stimulus (CS) is presented (but not followed by a UCS)
  9. Operant conditioning
    • learning if a certain action is reinforced or punished
    • Behavior -> +/-reinforcer -> changed behavior
  10. Primary reinforcer
    • stimulus that is naturally rewarding
    • Ex- food, water
  11. Secondary reinforcer
    stimulus like money that becomes reinforcing through its link to a primary reinforcer
  12. Fixed-ratio schedule
    • reinforcement after a fixed # of responses
    • Ex- paid for every 10 pizzas made
  13. Fixed-interval schedule
    • reinforcement of 1st response after a fixed amnt of time has passed
    • Ex.- cramming for exam, picking up check from part time job
  14. Variable-ratio schedule
    • Reinforcement after varying # of responses
    • Ex.- playing a slot machine
  15. Variable-interval schedule
    • Reinforcement after varying # of responses
    • Ex-playing a slot machine
  16. Escape conditioning
    • remove/ terminate an an unpleasant stimulus
    • Ex-hide vegetables and dont eat them
  17. Avoidance conditioning
    • training to withdraw from stimulus before it starts
    • Ex- dont like meat so dont have it for home meals
  18. Cognitive map
    mental picture of a place
  19. Learned helplessness
    • when repeated attempts to control a situation fail
    • results in belief that situation is uncontrollable
  20. Modeling
    learning by imitating others; copying behaviors
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Psych Ch. 9 Final
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