Death and Dying Exam 3
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What is the relation between age and death anxiety?
Older adults report lower levels of death anxiety than younger adults
What is the relation between self-esteem, self-actualization and death anxiety?
Low self-esteem and self-acutalization = more death anxiety; however, when remided of death, risky behavior increases when the behavior is related to self-esteem.
Give 3 reasons why women report more death anxiety than do men.
- 1) men are may be less willing to admit fear of death
- 2) women's greater role in caring for the sick and dying
- 3) women may be more tied to their physical bodies making it more difficult to deny their mortality
What were Wink and Scott's (2005) findings regarding religion and fear of death?
Moderately religious people were more anxious about death than low and high religious people.
What are the 5 coping processes described in Tomer and Elison's Comprehensive Model of Death Anxiety?
- 1) Life review
- 2) Life planning
- 3) Indentification with one's culture
- 4) generative processes
- 5) self-detachment
List and describe the 5 attitudes measured by the Death Attitude Provile Revised.
- 1) Fear of death - anxiety about death
- 2) Death avoidance - try not to think about death
- 3) Neural Acceptance - stoic resignation
- 4) Escape acceptance - view death as a release from suffering
- 5) Approach acceptance - view death as a passage to better existence
What are the 3 components of the death distress construct?
- 1) Death anxiety
- 2) Death depression
- 3) Death obsession
What are the 3 testable hypotheses?
- 1) Mortality salience
- 2) Anxiety buffer
- 3) Death thought accesibility
What are the 2 components of psychological buffer against death anxiety?
cultural worldview and self-esteem protection
What is the difference between proximal and distal defenses?
Proximal defenses keep thoughts of death out of awareness by suppression, distraction, planning healthier lifestyle changes, and exaggerating longevity; however, distal defenses offer symbolic protection against death by allowing people to believe that they are valuable contributors (self-esteem) to a meaningful existence.
How did mortality salience effect Japanese and American students?
When reminded of death, Japanese students gave credit for their success to others and took more personal responsiblity for their own failures. American students did the opposite. This reflects that both cultural groups, when reminded of death, sided more with their cultural norms; Japanese being more collectivist and American's being more indiviudalistic.
What are 5 condtions that affect death thought accessiblity?
- 1) Threatining self-esteem
- 2) Threatining worldview
- 3) Threatining religious beliefs
- 4) Threatining culture
- 5) Reminding of animal nature
What are 4 reactions to people with different cultural worldviews?
- 1) Derogation
- 2) Assimilation
- 3) Accommodation
- 4) Annihilation
What are 4 themes in Earnest Becker's work, Reapy?
- 1) The world is terrifying
- 2) Death is the basic motivation for human behavior
- 3) The denial of death
- 4) The escape from evil
What are the main tents of Firestone's Separation Theory?
The mind is divided into the self system (strives for self-actualization) and anti-self system (self-limiting). We engage in many psychological defenses against death anxiety, such as: self-nourishing, preoccupation, vanity, addictions, gene survival, institualized defenses, anti-sexual/feeling life outlook, and self-denial.
List and describe 3 alternative explanations for effects of mortality salience.
- 1) Meaning maintenance - The need to believe that life has meaning.
- 2) Uncertainty management - The need to limit uncertainty in life.
- 3) Coalition psychology - The need to belong to a group and adhere to their norms.
How does attachment styles relate to death anxiety?
People with secure attachment styles don't show cultural worldview defense in response to death, but insecure people have high death anxiety.
List and describe the 6 individual difference variable that make people more or less prone to worldview defense in response to mortality salience.
- 1) Self-esteem - People with high self-esteem don't defend their cultrual worldview
- 2) Authoritarianism - People who have to have things their way will defend their cultural worldview
- 3) Personal need for structure (PNS) - People who can't deal with uncertainity will defend their cultural worldview
- 4) Attachment style - Inscure attached people will defend their cultural worldview
- 5) Hardieness - Tough skinned people don't defend their cultural worldview
- 6) Religous Fundelmentalism - People who don't adhere to religious doctrine don't defend their cultural worldview.
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