Module 6 Lesson 2 IP Storage: iSCSI and NAS/NFS - VMware vSphere 4.1 Study Flash Cards

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Module 6 Lesson 2 IP Storage: iSCSI and NAS/NFS - VMware vSphere 4.1 Study Flash Cards
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IP Storage: iSCSI and NAS/NFS - VMware vSphere 4.1 Study Flash Cards
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  1. Using IP Storage with ESX/ESXi

    ESX/ESXi supports what two type of IP storage?
    iSCSI - Used to hold one or more VMFS datastores

    NAS - Used to hold one or more NFS datastores
  2. Using IP Storage with ESX/ESXi

    What type of data/files are VMFS and NFS datastores used to hold?
    virtual machines, ISO images and virtual machine templates.
  3. Using IP Storage with ESX/ESXi

    Both iSCSI and NAS support vSphere Distributed features including Storage vMotion, vMotion, HA, FT, DRS and Storage I/0 Control. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. Storage I/0 Control is not supported on NFS datastores. The statement is true for the other features.
  4. Using IP Storage with ESX/ESXi

    ESX/ESXi supports up to how many NFS volumes?
    64 NFS volumes.
  5. Using IP Storage with ESX/ESXi

    In addition to 1 Gbps Ethernet, iSCSI and NAS can run over 10 Gbps Ethernet. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    True. 10BbE provides increased storage performance levels and provides sufficient bandwidth that permits multiple types of high-bandwidth protocol traffic to coexist on the same network.
  6. Using IP Storage with ESX/ESXi

    ESX hosts support booting from what type of iSCSI adapter?
    ESX hosts support booting from an independent hardware iSCSI adapter only.
  7. Using IP Storage with ESX/ESXi

    ESXi hosts support booting from what type of iSCSI adapter?
    ESXi hosts support booting from an software iSCSI and a dependent hardware iSCSI adapter.
  8. iSCSI Components

    Name the iSCSI components.
    • iSCSI storage system
    • Physical hard disks
    • LUNs (logical unit numbers)
    • SPs (storage processors)
    • TCP/IP network
    • Servers with iSCSI initiators (hardware or software)
  9. iSCSI Components

    What does an iSCSI SAN consists of?
    An iSCSI SAN consists of an iSCSI storage system containing one or more LUNs and one or more SPs.
  10. iSCSI Components

    What iSCSI initiators can an ESX/ESXi host be configured with?
    • Hardware-based - iSCSI HBA or hardware initiator
    • Software-based - known as a iSCSI software initiator
  11. iSCSI Components

    An iSCSI target presents ____ to the ____ and the ____ sends it ____ commands.
    An iSCSI target presents LUNs to the initiator and the initiator sends it SCSI commands.
  12. iSCSI Components

    A target resides in the ESX/ESXi host and an initiator resides in the storage arrays that are supported by the ESX/ESXi host. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. An initiator resides in the ESX/ESXi host and a target resides in the storage arrays that are supported by the ESX/ESXi host.
  13. iSCSI Components

    Ethernet switches implement zoning like Fibre Channel switches. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. Ethernet switches do not implement zoning. Instead, you can use VLANs to create zones.
  14. iSCSI Addressing

    What is the main addressable, discoverable IP Storage entity?
    An iSCSI node.
  15. iSCSI Addressing

    An iSCSI node can be an initiator or a target. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    True.
  16. iSCSI Addressing

    What does an iSCSI node require so that storage can be managed regardless of address?
    A name.
  17. iSCSI Addressing

    What formats can the iSCSI name use?
    • iSCSI qualified name (IQN)
    • Extended unique identifier (EUI)
  18. iSCSI Addressing

    Up to how many characters long can the IQN (iSCSI qualified name)be?
    Up to 255 characters long.
  19. iSCSI Addressing

    What is a VMware software iSCSI initiator?

    A software iSCSI initiator is VMware code built in to the VMkernel which allows ESX/ESXi host to connect to iSCSI storage through standard network adapters.
  20. iSCSI Initiators

    What are the two types of hardware iSCSI initiators and how do they differ?
    Dependent hardware iSCSI initiator - depends on VMware networking and on iSCSI configuration and management interfaces provided by VMware.

    Independent hardware iSCSI initiator - handles all iSCSI and networking processing and management for ESX/ESXi hosts.
  21. Configuring Software iSCSI

    Name the configuration requirements for an iSCSI software initiator.
    • 1. Configure a VMkernel port for accessing IP storage.
    • 2. Enable the iSCSI software adapter (a default iSCSI IQN is chosen automatically).
    • 3. Configure iSCSI target addresses.
    • 4. Configure iSCSI security (CHAP).
  22. ESX/ESXi Network Configuration for IP Storage

    What does networking configuration for software iSCSC involve creating on a ESX/ESXi host's virtual switch to handle/access iSCSI traffic/storage?
    A VMkernel port must be created for ESX/ESXi to access software iSCSI.
  23. ESX/ESXi Network Configuration for IP Storage

    The same VMkernel port can be used to access iSCSI and NAS/NFS storage. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    True. However, it is a best practice to separate iSCSI networks from NAS/NFS networks.
  24. ESX/ESXi Network Configuration for IP Storage

    What should be done to optimize ESX/ESXi network configuration for iSCSI and NAS/NFS IP storage?
    Separate iSCSI networks from NAS/NFS networks.
  25. ESX/ESXi Network Configuration for IP Storage

    In order of preference, name the methods of separating iSCSI networks from NAS/NFS networks.
    • 1. Physical separation (preferred)
    • 2. VLANs (if phyical is not possible)
  26. ESX/ESXi Network Configuration for IP Storage

    Software iSCSI host-based multipathing requires how many physical network adapters?
    Two or more.
  27. ESX/ESXi Network Configuration for IP Storage

    To add a VMkernel port to a virtual switch, go to the host's ____ tab and select ____ in the Hardware list.
    To add a VMkernel port to a virtual switch, go to the host's Configuration tab and select Networking in the Hardware list.
  28. ESX/ESXi Network Configuration for IP Storage

    Why is it a best practice to isolate iSCSI networks from other networks?
    It is a best practice to separate iSCSI networks from other networks for performance and security reasons.
  29. iSCSS Target-Discovery Methods

    How many iSCSI target discovery methods to the ESX/ESXi host support and what are they?
    Two.

    • 1. Static discovery
    • 2. Dynamic discovery (also know as SendTargets discovery)
  30. iSCSS Target-Discovery Methods

    Define the "Static" iSCSI Target-Discovery" method.
    Static discovery - The initiator does not need to perfrom discovery. The initiator knows in advance all the targets that it will be contacting and uses their IP addresses and domain names to communicate with them.
  31. iSCSS Target-Discovery Methods

    Define the "Dynamic (SendTargets)" iSCSI Target-Discovery" method.
    Dynamic (SendTargets) - Each time the initiator contacts a specified iSCSI server, it sends the SendTargets request to the server. The server's SendTargets respond supplys a list of available targets to the initiator. The iSCSI names and IP addresses of these targets appear as static targets in the vSphere Client.
  32. iSCSS Target-Discovery Methods

    What is the port used for iSCSI network traffic such as Target-Discovery?

    Port 3260
  33. iSCSS Target-Discovery Methods

    If you remove a static target added by dynamic discovery, when might the target be returned to the list supplied to the vSphere client?
    • Next time a rescan happens
    • Next time the HBA is reset
    • Next host reboot
  34. iSCSI Security: CHAP

    IP networks that the iSCSI technology uses to connect to remote targets encrypt the data that they transport. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. The data iSCSI traffic transports is not encrypted. Therefore, as a best practice, to ensure the security of the connection you must have all the iSCSI devices on the network implement CHAP authentication for a secure connection.
  35. iSCSI Security: CHAP

    What method/type of authentication does ESX/ESXi iSCSI initiators support.
    ESX/ESXi iSCSI initiators support CHAP for authentication purposes.
  36. iSCSI Security: CHAP

    How many types/methods of CHAP authenticaion does ESX/ESXi support and what are they?
    Two.

    • Unidirectional
    • Bidirectional - also called mutual CHAP (Software iSCSI only)
  37. iSCSI Security: CHAP

    Define the "Unidirectional" CHAP authentication method.
    Unidirectional - Also called one-way CHAP, the target authenticates the initiator, but the initiator does not authenticate the target. You must specity the CHAP secret so that iniiators can access targets.
  38. iSCSI Security: CHAP

    Define the "Bidirectional" CHAP authentication method.
    Bidirectional - Also called mutual CHAP, and available with software iSCSI only. Provides an additional level of serurity by enabling the initiator to also authenticate the target. You must specity different target and initiator secrets.
  39. iSCSI Security: CHAP

    CHAP uses a two-way handshake algorithm to verify the identity of the host (iSCSI initiator) and , if applicable, of the iSCSI target when the host and target establish a connection. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. CHAP uses a Three-way handshake algorithm to verify the identity of the host (iSCSI initiator) and , if applicable, of the iSCSI target when the host and target establish a connection.
  40. iSCSI Security: CHAP

    CHAP verification is based on a predefined private value, or CHAP secret, that the initiator and target share. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    True
  41. iSCSI Security: CHAP

    ESX/ESXi implements CHAP as defined in what RFC standard?
    RFC 1994
  42. iSCSI Security: CHAP

    At what level does ESX/ESXi support CHAP authentication?
    ESX/ESXi supports CHAP authenticaiton at the adapter level.
  43. iSCSI Security: CHAP

    At what level does ESX/ESXi support per-target (different credentials for each target) CHAP authentication?
    Software iSCSI level only
  44. iSCSI Security: CHAP

    When setting the ESX/ESXi iSCSI CHAP parameters, what are the CHAP "select option:" available choices?
    • Dot not use CHAP
    • Do not use CHAP unless required by target
    • Use CHAP unless prohibited by target
    • Use CHAP
  45. iSCSI Security: CHAP

    What should be done before configuring an ESX/ESXi host for iSCSI CHAP authentication?
    Check whether CHAP is enabled at the iSCSI storage system and check the CHAP authentication method (Unidirectional or Bidrecitonal/Mutual CHAP) that the system supports.
  46. Configuring Hardware iSCSI

    Name the configuration requirements for an iSCSI hardware adapter/initiator (HBA).
    • 1. Install the iSCSI hardware initiator.
    • 2. Modify the iSCSI name and configure the iSCSI alias.
    • 3. Configure iSCSI target addresses.
    • 4. Configure iSCSI security (CHAP).
  47. Configuring Hardware iSCSI

    What should you do before begining to configure a hardware iSCSI initiator?
    Make sure that the iSCSI HBA is successfully installed and the adapter appears on the list of storage adapters available for configuration.
  48. Configuring Hardware iSCSI

    How can you confirm a hardware iSCSI HBA has been successfully installed?
    Click the ESX/ESXi host's Configuration tab and select the Storage Adapters link. If the initiator/HBA is installed, you can view its properties.
  49. Configuring Hardware iSCSI

    ESX/ESXi hosts support bidirectional/mutual/two way CHAP for hardware initiators. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. Only one-way CHAP is available for hardware initiators.
  50. Configuring Hardware iSCSI

    The steps to configure the target discovery addresses and CHAP security are the same for hardware initiators as they are for the software initiators. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    True.
  51. NFS Components

    What are the vSphere NFS components?
    • NAS server/storage device
    • Directory share
    • IP network
    • NICs
    • Virtual switch
    • VMkernel port
    • ESX/ESXi host
  52. NFS Components

    What is defined on a virtual switch that enables an ESX/ESXi host to access an NFS server.
    VMkernel port.
  53. Addressing and Access Control with NFS

    What must be configured on a VMkernel port for an ESX/ESXi host to connect to a NFS server?
    • IP address
    • Subnet mask
    • Default gateway
  54. Addressing and Access Control with NFS

    On an ESX/ESXi host what user are NFS access privileges assigned to?
    root.
  55. Addressing and Access Control with NFS

    Why might having root as the privileged user not work for access to all NFS volumes?
    Typically, to protect NFS volumes from unauthorized access, the NFS administrator exports the volumes with the root_squash turned on. When root_squash is on, the NFS server treats access by the root user as access by any unprivileged user and might refuse the ESX/ESXi host access to virtual machine files stored on the NFS volume.
  56. Addressing and Access Control with NFS

    What NFS option must a NFS administrator use to export an NFS volume to allow root on the client (ESX/ESXi host) to be recognized as root on a NFS server?
    no_root_squash. Also, the NFS administrator must allow read and write privileges to the datastore. Only with that configuration can the ESX/ESXi host deploy and manage the virtual machines whose home directory is to be on the NFS datastore.
  57. Configuring an NFS Datastore

    Name the configuration requirements for an NFS Datastore.
    • Create a VMkernel port
    • NFS server host name or IP address
    • Path to folder on the NFS server
    • Whether or not to mount the NFS read-only
    • NFS datastore name
  58. Configuring an NFS Datastore

    For performance and security reasons, what is a best practice for a NFS network?
    Isolate NFS networks form the other networks, such as iSCSI and virtual machine networks.
  59. Configuring an NFS Datastore

    How should you mount NFS if you want the NFS file system to a library of ISO images?
    Mount as a read-only NFS file system.
  60. Configuring an NFS Datastore

    What should the name of the NFS VMkernel port be?
    The NFS VMkernel port can be any name.
  61. Configuring an NFS Datastore

    What are the steps to create an NFS datastore?
    • 1. Click the Storage link in the host's Configuration tab.
    • 2. Click the Add Storage link and select Network File System as the storage type. Enter the properties of the NFS datastore:

    • Host name or IP address of the NFS server
    • NFS server folder path
    • Mount read/write or read-only
    • Datastore name
  62. Viewing IP Storage Information

    After creating an NFS datastore or a VMFS datastore on an iSCSI LUN, how can you view the datastores?
    Click the Storage link in the Configuration tab. The Storage link lists all the datastores that the host can access.
  63. Viewing IP Storage Information

    After selecting the host's configuration tab and clicking the storage link, from the datastores pane , how can you display the contents of the datastore?
    From the datastores pane, you can display the contents of the datastore by right-clicking the datastore and selecting Browse Datastore.
  64. Unmounting an NFS Datastore

    Which of the following is not true?

    A. Unmounting an NFS datastore makes the files in the shared folder inaccessible to the host.

    B. Unmounting an NFS datastore deletes the files in the datastore.
    B.

    Unmounting an NFS datastore does not delete the files in the datastore.
  65. Unmounting an NFS Datastore

    What must you do before unmounting an NFS datastore?
    You must stop all virtual machines whose disks reside on the datastore.
  66. Unmounting an NFS Datastore

    What are the vClient steps to unmount an NFS datastore?
    • 1. Click ths Storage link in the host's Configuration tab.
    • 2. Right-click the NFS datastore and select Unmount. Or select the NFS datastore and click the Delete link.
  67. Using IP Storage with ESX/ESXi

    Booting your host from a SAN provides numerous benefits. List/name 5.
    • 1. Cheaper servers. Servers can be more dense and run cooler without internal storage.
    • 2. Easier server replacement. You can replace servers and have the new server point to the old boot location.
    • 3. Less wasted space.
    • 4. Easier backup processes. The system boot images in the SAN can be backed up as part of the overall SANbackup procedures.
    • 5. Improved management. Creating and managing the operating system image is easier and more efficient.
  68. iBFT iSCSI Boot Overview

    To deploy ESXi and boot from the iSCSI SAN, the host must have an iSCSI boot capable network adapter that supports the iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT) format. What is iBFT?
    The iBFT is a method of communicating parameters about the iSCSI boot device to an operating system.
  69. iBFT iSCSI Boot Overview

    What must be configured on the network adapter before installing ESXi and booting from the iSCSI SAN?
    Configure the networking and iSCSI boot parameters on the network adapter and enable the adapter for the iSCSI boot.

    Because configuring the network adapter is vendor specific, review your vendor documentation for instructions.
  70. iBFT iSCSI Boot Overview

    List/name and describe the iBFT iSCSI boot sequence 7 steps.
    • 1. When restarted, the system BIOS detects the iSCSI boot firmware on the network adapter.
    • 2. The iSCSI boot firmware uses the preconfigured boot parameters to connect with the specified iSCSI target.
    • 3. If the connection to the iSCSI target is successful, the iSCSI boot firmware writes the networking and iSCSI boot parameters in to the iBFT and stores the table in the system memory.

    NOTE: The system uses this table to configure its own iSCSI connection and networking and to start up.

    • 4. The BIOS boots the boot device.
    • 5. The VMkernel starts loading and takes over the boot operation.
    • 6. Using the boot parameters from the iBFT, the VMkernel connects to the iSCSI target.
    • 7. After the iSCSI connection is established, the system boots.
  71. iBFT iSCSI Boot Considerations

    When you boot an ESXi host from iSCSI using iBFT-enabled network adapters, the iBFT iSCSI boot does not support the following items:

    -IPv6
    -Failover for the iBFT-enabled network adapters

    True or False?

    If False? Why?
    True
  72. iBFT iSCSI Boot Considerations

    What restrictions apply after you set up your host to boot from iBFT iSCSI?
    -You cannot disable the software iSCSI adapter. If the iBFT configuration is present in the BIOS, the host re-enables the software iSCSI adapter during each reboot.

    -You cannot remove the iBFT iSCSI boot target using the vSphere Client. The target appears on the list of adapter static targets.

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