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animal tonical structures functions biology memphis zoo
Vocabulary cards for the Homeschool Academy at the Memphis Zoo.
The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I.
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chomosome number of the original cell.
Nuclear division proess; prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
Phase of cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis
Chromatin, nucleolus, nuclear envelope.
Is a form of asexual reproduction found in females, where growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization by a male.
Replicated forms of chromosomes joined together by the centromere and separated during mitosis and meiosis II.
Any cell in a multicelluar organism except a sperm or egg cell.
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of the chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns.
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
A discrete unit of heriditary information consisting of a specific necleotide sequence in DNA(or RNA, in some viruses).
The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
Haveing two different alleles for a given genetic character.
Having two identical alleles for a given trait.
The physical and physiological traits of an organism.
A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization.
In a heterozygote, the allele that is completely masked in the phenotype.
Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, enviroment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, enviroment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it.
An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy to be used by the cell.
A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and protists. In plant cells, the wall is formed of cellulose fibers inbedded in a polysaccharide-protein matrix.
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants.
An organelle fond only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.
Having an affinity to water.
1st Law of Thermodynamics
The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
A non-living part of an ecosystem. Ex: water, sunlight, climate
The biosphere is the part of the earth, including air, land, surface rocks, and water, within which life occurs.
A living part of an ecosystem. Ex: Plants, animals(birds), insects(worms).
Organisms compete for the limited number of biotic and abiotic factors.
The study of how living things interact with each other and their enviroment.
Organisms of one species living together in the same place at the same time.
A close relationship between two organisms in which at least one of the organsims benefits.
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. Vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds.
A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, throught the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
The reactant on which an enzyme works.