Psychology Definitions #8

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Psychology Definitions #8
2012-01-15 15:45:23
Psychology Definitions

Psychology Definitions #8
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  1. Longitudinal studies
    Research designs that monitor psychological variables over long periods of time to chart development and change
  2. Heritability
    The proportion of variability in a trait or psychological measure within a population that can be accounted for by genetic inheritance
  3. Monozygotic twins
    Twins who develop from a single fertilized ovum that has divided and who therefore have identical genes
  4. Dizygotic twins
    Twins who develop from two fertilized ova and who therefore have different genes
  5. Twin studies
    Studies on heritability that often use comparisons between monozygotic and dizygotic twins because their genetic relatedness is known
  6. Family studies
    Studies on heritability that use comparisons between family members because their genetic relatedness is known
  7. Adoption studies
    Studies on heritability that use comparisons between adopted children and other family members whose genetic relatedness is known
  8. Non-standard environments
    Environments of siblings growing up in the same household which vary in subtle ways and are experienced as different
  9. Situationism
    The idea that personality is not consistent but that behaviour is under the control of environments and situations
  10. Social norms
    Expectations and prescriptions in the social and cultural context that influence behaviours and values
  11. Modular personality
    The idea that personality is not unitary, coherent and consistent but has different facets that are mobilized in different situations
  12. Identification
    Hypothetical process by which individuals experience some temporary merging with another, or becoming an aspect of, another person
  13. Sensation
    The initial detection, by our senses, of stimuli in the world
  14. Perception
    The end result of the processing and modification of sensory information by the internal cognitive processes of the individual
  15. Attention
    A selection process that operates between what is sensed and what is perceived
  16. Information processing approach
    An approach that likens cognitive processes (attention, perception, etc.) to the workings of a computer: moving, storing and transforming information
  17. Neuroscience
    A field of study that considers the workings of the brain
  18. Cognitive neuroscience
    A field of study that considers the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive processes
  19. Conscious perception
    The conscious awareness of some aspect(s) of the environment as a result of the integration of filtered sensory information with stored knowledge
  20. Unconscious perception
    The result of sensory information processed automatically below the level of conscious awareness but still capable of influencing how we react and behave