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What were Chargaff’s rules
and why were they important?
- A=T and G=C (ALMOST)
- important: indicates double helix model
- important: confirms base pairing
Describe two types of point
mutations and give examples of their effects.
- substitution- one base is changed to another
- deletion- one base is removed
ex: deletion or substitution of a stop term alters amino acid production
Describe the Watson - Crick Model of DNA.
- double helix (two interwoven strands of nucleotides) (spiral staircase)
- displays base pairing- hydrogen bonds between a and t and gc, confirming chargaffs rules
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
- the flow of genetic info can be moved from DNA to RNA to protein
- DNA--> transcription mRNA---> translation peptide
Describe the Hershey and
Chase experiment and its results.
- bacteriophage (virus) with one DNA radioactive, another with a protein radioactive
- both reactive
- bacterium radioactive with DNA
- not radioactive with protein
shows DNA transfered genetic info, not the protein
What is the complete
definition of the gene?
segment of DNA that contains all the info needed for protein of RNA synthesis
advantage and one disadvantage of transgenic plants.
higher crop yield/more food produces
1-Some changes in environmental cycles (for example, now our dear insect can not eat its food so needs to change his food source!)
two differences between RNA and DNA.
RNA single strand, DNA double strand
RNA has U, DNA has T
Compare the structure and
functions of the three types of RNA.
- mRNA: carries the message from dna in the nucleus to the cytoplasm during protein synthesis, one uncoiled strand
- tRNA: carries the amino acids to the mrna at the ribosome to make the polypeptides, clover shaped
- rRNA: is mostly just a structural one, it makes up the ribosome along with the proteins
What is the role of base
pairing in replication, transcription and translation?
ensures each stage stays specified to the organism's unique genetic code