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2012-01-04 17:35:52
Urinary System ch9

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  1. basic function of urinary system
    • removes wastes
    • adjusts water and electrolyte levels
    • maintains correct pH
  2. Organs of the Urinary System:
    • kidneys
    • ureters
    • urethra
    • urinary bladder
  3. azot/o
    nitrogenous waste
  4. bacteri/o
  5. cyst/o
    urinary bladder
  6. glomerul/o
  7. glycos/o
  8. keton/o
  9. lith/o
  10. meat/o
  11. nephr/o
  12. noct/i
  13. olig/o
  14. pyel/o
    renal pelvis
  15. ren/o
  16. ur/o
  17. ureter/o
  18. urethr/o
  19. urin/o
  20. -lith
  21. -lithiasis
    condition of stones
  22. -ptosis
  23. -tripsy
    surgical crushing
  24. -uria
    condition of the urine
  25. uremia
    toxic condition caused by build up of wastes in blood
  26. nephrons
    • functional working unit of kidneys (over 1mm)
    • this is where actual filtration of wastes from blood occurs
  27. ureters
    transports urine from where it drains from the kidney to the urinary bladder
  28. urethra
    • tube thru which urine travels from the bladder to the outside of body
    • about 8" in males and 1.5" in females
  29. retroperitoneal
    description of the location of the kidneys, outside and behind the peritoneal sac
  30. hilium
    center of the concave area of the kidney where the renal artery enters and the renal vein leaves the kidney
  31. renal artery
    delivers blood that is full of wastes to the kidney
  32. renal vein
    returns cleasnsed blood to circulation
  33. ureters
    • tubes that lead from kidneys to bladder
    • 10-12" long
  34. cortex
    outer portion/shell of the kidney
  35. medulla
    inner area of the kidney that houses the renal pyramids
  36. renal papilla
    tip of each renal pyramid
  37. calyx
    duct that connects the renal papilla to the renal pelvis for unrine to flow thru
  38. nephrons consist of:
    • renal corpuscle
    • renal tubule
  39. renal corpuscle
    blood filtering portion of nephrons
  40. glomerular; Bowman's capsule
    double walled, cup-like structure that encases the glomerulus
  41. glomerulus
    • ball of capillaries encased by Bowman's capsule
    • wastes filtered here enter Bowman's capsule
  42. afferent arteriole
    carries blood to the golmerulus
  43. efferent arteriole
    carries blood away from the glomerulus
  44. 4 sections of continuous renal tubule
    • proximal convoluted tubule
    • loop of Henle
    • distal convoluted tubule
    • collecting tubule
  45. internal sphincter
    involuntary muscle action causes this to relax when bladder contracts to avoid involuntary urine flow
  46. external sphincter
    controlled by voluntary action, opens to allow voluntary urination
  47. urinary meatus
    external opening of the urethra thru which urine exits the body
  48. kidneys are responsible for homeostasis by:
    • continual adjustment of chemical conditions in body
    • regulation of electrolytes (sodium, potassium)
    • maintaining correct pH
  49. 3 stages of urine production
    • 1. Filtration in renal corpuscle
    • 2. Reabsorption of water and nutrients by the renal tubules
    • 3. Secretion of waste products directly into renal tubule
  50. once urine formation is complete, it follows this path from renal tubule:
    • collecting tubules
    • renal papilla
    • calyx
    • renal pelvis
    • ureter
  51. during secretion stage, special cells in the renal tubules secrete:
    ammonia, uric acid and other wastes
  52. general makeup of urine
    • straw to clear colored
    • 95% water/5% wastes
    • contains electrolytes, toxins, nitrogenous wastes,
  53. urinalysis
    physical and chemical analysis of urine
  54. albumin
    protein in blood that can indicate problems when appearing in urine
  55. implication of basic or alkaline pH (>7) in urine
    • respiratory alkalosis
    • fever
    • high protein diet
    • ascorbic acid supplement
  56. implication of protein in urine
    glomerulonephritis or preeclampsia in pregnant women
  57. implication of heightened glucose in urine
    • poorly controlled diabetes
    • Cushing's syndrome
    • other infection
  58. implication of ketones in urine
    • poorly controlled diabetes
    • dehydration
    • starvation
    • ingestion of large amts of aspirin
  59. implications of blood in urine
    • some types of anemia
    • some meds
    • arsenic poisoning
    • trauma
    • burns