This lines the outside of the Lung, it is not the part of the respiratory system
How may layers does the pleural membrane have?
Inner and outer
This covers the abdominal organs
What is another word for Pleural Effusion?
Made from simple sugars, sometimes referred to as polysaccharides or starches
Includes steriods, waxes, and fats. Triglycerides
Made from Amino Acids. There are a total of 20 amino acids in the human body. These are amino acids not made up by the body, but instead have to be obtained by consumption of meat. Amino Acids are made from nucleic acids (DNA)
What is the begining process of all Western Diseases?
Has a biconcave shape
The only cell in the body without a nucleus
Performs gas exchange
Red Blood Cell (RBC)
What are the 3 types of Muscles in the body?
Skeletal (voluntary) striated
Smooth (involuntary - autonomic nervous system control) deep to body
Cardiac (looks like skeletal, acts like smooth)
What is the function of the Paranasal Sinus?
1. Warms the inhaled air
2. Humidify / Moisten the inhaled air
Cartilaginous structure connecting the pharynx and trachea at the level of cervical vertebrae. It is composed of connective tissue containing 9 pieces of cartilage shaped like a box.
The largest cartilage of the larynx; it is visible and palpable above the hyoid bone anteriorly
Thyroid Cartilage (Adam's Apple)
Shaped like a signet ring, connects the larynx and trachea
Leaf-shaped lid at the entrance to the larynx. It closes and covers the larynx when food is being swallowed from the pharynx to the esophagus.
What is another term for Chemical Pneumonia
When food and water accidentally goes into the airway. What is that called?
The sac between the visceral and parietal pleura which is generally lined with fluid
Air entering pleural space is called?
When air is introduced into the pleural space (during chest trauma from motor vehicle accident (MVA), or puncture of thoracic cavity as with an acupuncutre needle), a pleural cavity is created and the lung collapses (partially or totally)
Water entering the pleural space is called?
Pleural Effusion (edema)
Contractions occur in a set of respiratory muscles between the ribs, called external intercostals muscles.
The external intercostals and diaphragm relax
The measuring of breath
What monitors CO2 levels of the blood?
Respiratory Control Center (RCC)
How long can one hold his breath?
Until CO2 gets to critical levels
Where does O2 and CO2 perform gas exchange?
Is breathing entirely voluntary or involuntary?
What is hyperactive in Hyperactive Airway Disease?
Bronchial Smooth Muscle
How much of a role (in percent) does the diaphragm play in respiration? External Intercostals?
External Intercostals 10%
What are the most common Respiratory Conditions (Hyperactive Airway Disease)?
Asthma - the inability to exhale (bronchospasm) (occurs during childhood --> early adulthood)
Chronic Bronchitis - inpairment of mucocilliary escalator - persistant cough, esp. in smokers (occurs during age >= 40-50 years)
COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - lose the abiltiy of elastic recoil (occurs during age>= 60 years)
A 5 year old child playing outdoors for hours and develops sudden wheezing. What does this person have?
A 60 year old smoker with shortness of breath and periodic wheezing. What does this person have?
A 45 year old with smokers cough. What does the person have?
What are four physiological ways we lose body fluid?
Movement of water from Low to High solute /osmole concentration
What is the factor that keeps fluid inside the blood vessel?
Plasma Osmotic Pressure
What is the most common extracellular ion?
What are some of the common causes of edema?
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) - Blood clot (unilateral edema)
Enlarging Cancer Mass (unilateral)
Congestive Heart Failure (pump failure) - systematic problem (bilateral)
Protein Calorie Malnutrition (anywhere)
Which hormones are NOT under pituitary control?
Which hormone is antagonistic to insulin?
Insulin and Glucogon regulate what?
Blood Glucose Levels
When is the blood glucose levels the highest?
After a Meal (postprandial)
What is the function of insulin? How does it lower the blood glucose?
Insulin is the carrier protein (faciliated diffusion). Takes the glucose molecule and drive it into the Liver cell.
When is glucogon released?
In periods of fasting or when blood glucose levels are low. Breaks down glycogen (glycogenesis)
What is calcitonin involved with?
Bone mineralization by stimulating osteoblasts; drive calcium ions into bone. Also lowers blood calcium levels.
What is PTH involved with?
Bone demineralization by stimulating osteoclasts to release calcium ions into blood to increase calcium levels in the blood
A 45 year old female who complains of low energy levels, facial swelling, weight gain, despite poor appetite. No neck masses where found on examination, blood TSH is elevated and T4 level is low. What does this person have?
(Why? age related thyroid conditions, lack of neck mass, myxedema)
A 21 year old complaining of increased thirst and appetite with frequent urination. What does this person have?
Type 1 Diabetes
What are the 3 P's of Diabetes?
Polyuria - excessive urination
Polydipsia - excessive thirst
Polyphagia - excessive appetite
A 45 year old complaining of fatigue, facial swelling, weight gain, poor appetite. Noted with lump in the neck area.
a. Grave's Disease
b. Primary Hypothyroidism
d. Pituitary Adenoma
Primary Hypothyroidism (key words: no anterior neck mass)
Goiter (key words: not enough iodine leads to anterior neck mass)
Pituitary Adenoma (key words: over production of TSH leads Hyperthyroidism, excessive weight loss despite over eating, headache, bilateral breast enlargement)
A 35 year old male with coarse facial features and rough skin. What does he have?
A 26 year old female with bilateral nipple discharge with swollen breasts. What does she have?
A 23 year old female with swollen anterior neck lump. What does she have?
A 45 year old patient with COPD, hard to control, usually requiring steroids. What does this person have?
A 45 year old with a lump on one side of the neck (small nodules) and elevated calcium levels. What does this person have?
A 64 year old with general weakness, weight gain, decreased appetite and facial edema. What condition does this person have?
Which hormone is NOT under pituitary control?
a. Growth Hormone
Aldosterone (under renin-angiotenson system)
What is the hormone and bone cell pair for bone demineralization?
PTH (Parathyroid Hormone)
What is the mechanism for type 2 Diabetes?
Insulin receptor insensitivity
What is the function of LH and FSH in males?
LH - produce testosterone
FSH - produce sperm
What are negative or adverse effects of testosterone in elderly males?
Male pattern baldness
Prostate enlargement (possibly cancer)
High LDL cholesterol (increase chance of heart disease)
Why do they call it an Inguinal Hernia?
Small Intestine herniates through Inguinal Canal
The 4 rules of female reproductive system? Length? First day? Average length? Day of Mid-cycle?
Length of cycle is 28 day
First day of cycle is menses
Average length of period 3-5 days
Mid-cycle is considered 14 days
What hormone is involved in endometiral growth?
Which hormone is responsible for ovulation?
LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
What hormone is elevated after ovulation?
What hormone is involved in ovarian follicle development?
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Which pituitary hormone is involved with labor or pregnancy?
A 32 year old with heavy periods with clots. What does this person have?
A 16 year old no menses or no cycle. What does this person have?
A 28 year old with a lot of intestinal pain related to her cycle. What does this person have?
A 47 year old with benign uterine growth and a lot of pelvic pain. What does this person have?
A 24 year old female, divorced, has two children, takes birth control pills, has irregular mentrual cycle. Last menstrual period was 15 weeks ago. Urine pregnancy test is negative. What does this person have?
What is the name of the hormone to test for positive pregnancy?
hCG (human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
Which structure produces progesterone after first trimester?
What is an autoimmune disease?
The inability to differentiate self (normal body tissue) from non-self (exogenous pathogen)
Immune system attacking body tissue
What components make up the Sensory pathway of Peripheral Nervous System?
5 sense organs
12 pairs of cranial nerves
What components make up the Motor pathway of Peripheral Nervous System?
31 pairs of Spinal Nerves
What components make up the Peripheral Nervous System?
Somatosensosry System - consists of 5 sense organs, 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Autonomic Nervous System - consists of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
What components make up the Central Nervous System?
The Sympathetic Nervous System belongs to which part of Nervous System (Central or Peripheral)?
The Cervical Nerve Roots belong to which part of the Nervous System (Central or Peripheral)?
The Dura Mater belongs to which part of the Nervous System (Central or Peripheral)?
The Trigeminal Nerve belongs to which part of the Nervous System (Central or Peripheral)?
What common procedure is important diagnostically/theraputically?
Spinal Tap (aka Lumbar Puncture)
What space is violated / entered by the needle during a Lumbar Puncture?
Sub Arachnoid Space
Which Cranial Nerves are responsible for Eye movement?
CN 3, 4, 6 (Oculamotor)
Which Cranial Nerves pertain to the Face?
CN 5 - Trigeminal (Sensory)
CN 7 - Facial (Motor)
If we have unilateral facial / cheek / jaw pain, what is condition called?
Trigeminal Neuralgia (CN 5 problem)
Bell's Palsy (CN 7 problem)
CVA (wind stroke) (CN 7 problem)
Which Cranial Nerves are responsible for sensory of taste in the back of the tongue?
CN 9 - Glossopharyngeal (Sensory)
Which Cranial Nerves are responsible for parasympathetic activity in the body?
CN 10 - Vagus
Which nerve in involved in neck movement?
CN 11 - Spinal Accessory Nerve
Someone with a stroke / CVA displays lateral tongue deviation. Which CN is affected?
CN 12 Hypoglossal (Motor)
In the Cervical Plexus (C1 - C4 nerve roots), there is a condition called "C3, 4, 5 keeps the diaphargm alive". Which nerve is impaired?
The Brachial Plexus (C5 - T1 nerve roots) forms 3 common problems: Wrist Drop, Claw Hand, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Please identify which nerve is affected for each condition.
Wrist Drop - Radial Nerve
Claw Hand - Ulnar Nerve
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - Median Nerve
Which nerve is affected in the condition of Sciatica (Unilateral shooting pain down the leg)?
Common Peroneal division of Sciatic Nerve (prolonged sensory issue will lead to motor problems i.e. Foot Drop)
Increased Heart Rate. Sympathetic or Parasympathetic?
Sweating. Sympathetic or Parasympathetic?
Pupil Dilation. Sympathetic or Parasympathetic?
Good Appetite. Sympathetic or Parasympathetic?
What is the difference between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic?
Sympathetic "Fight or Flight"
Parasympathetic "Rest and Digest"
What are the 3 physiological functions of the eye?
Accomodation of vision (focusing)
Regulating the amount of light entering the eye
EOM (Extra Ocular Movement, CN 3, 4, 6 (Motor))
In Multiple Sclerosis (MS) what anatomical structure are the antibodies attacking?
Is damage to nerve cells 100% reversible?
Which plexus in involved with "Foot Drop"?
Which nerve roots makeup the Brachial Plexus?
Which structure in involved in Accommodation of Vision?
What is the name of the condition associated with Increased Intraocular Pressure?
What is the name of the condition associated with Loss of Central Vision?
What is the name of the condition associated with Focus or Near-Vision?
What is the name of the condition associated with Diabetics routine eye exam?
3 year old child with deviation of eye. What condition is this?
What 3 physiological components are found in the Media of the Ear?