Neurotransmitter Systems

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  1. What are two examples of peptide transmitters?
    Opioid peptides (endorphin, enkephalin, dynorphin found in CNS+PNS) and cholecystokinin
  2. Both type a and b glycin receptors are what type of ion channel?
    ligated gated Cl-
  3. What are the 2 types of glycine receptors?
    alpha and beta
  4. Where can you find glycine?
    brain stem, spinal cord and retina
  5. Besides GABA, what are the other binding sites on GABA_A for?
    EtoH, barbiuates, benzodiazepines, and neurosteroid.
  6. Why is GABA_A receptor inhibitor? Specifically, what ion gives it this characteristic?
    It's a GABA-gated Cl- channel, which allows Cl- ion in causing hyperpolarization.
  7. True or false. GABA_A has multiple binding sites
  8. List the two general types of GABA receptors. Which one modulates 95% of the GABA drugs.
    GABA_A + GABA_B. Type A= 95% of drug modulation.
  9. What is GABA derived from and what enzyme is required to make GABA
    glutamate and GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase)
  10. What are the 2 major inhibitor neurotransmitters in the CNS?
    Glycine and GABA
  11. Besides glutamate, what other ligand can open AMPA?
  12. How do you open AMPA?
    By populating 1 binding site with Glutamate.
  13. Which one of the other two major glutamate receptors can be helpful in removing Mg plug and why?
    AMPA, because of it'sclose proximity to NMDA.
  14. How do you remove the Mg plug of the NMDA receptor?
    A slight membrane depolarization of the cell membrane.
  15. What ligand is requierd to bound to one NMDA binding site?
    Glycine. W/o this, NMDA will NOT open.
  16. Under what conditions does the NMDA receptor open?
    2 binding sites are occupied + removal of Mg plug
  17. The 3 main classes of glutamate receptor?
    NMDA, AMPA, Kainate Receptors
  18. Location of the glutamate transporters
    neurons and non-neuronal glial cells
  19. What can an excess amount of glutamate lead to?
    Excitotoxity of neurons
  20. List some functions of glutamate
    learning, memory, reward systems, pain, vision
  21. What is the most predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS?
  22. List the AA NTs
    GABA, glutamate, and glycine
  23. List the Amine transmitters.
    AcH, the catecholamines, and 5-HT
  24. What are the 3 categories of Neutrotransmitters?
    Amine, Amino Acid and Peptide
  25. What is the main mechanism of terminating synaptic tarnsmission of 5HT?
    Reuptake into pre-syn terminal
  26. What enzymes can break down 5-HT?
  27. What functions of the CNS and PNS is 5-HT involved in?
    mood, perception and cognition
  28. List two locations that serotonin is synthesized in and which one is the main location?
    Mainly in the Raphe Nuclus of Pons and also in the peripheral organs (GIT)
  29. What is serotonin also known as?
    5-HT (hydroxytryptamine)
  30. What molecule is Serotonin classified as?
    Indolamine, b/c no catechol group and NOT synthesized from tyrosine.
  31. True or false. Serotonin is a catecholamine
  32. Serotonin is synthesized from what amino acid?
  33. List the two families of receptors for Nore/Epi?
    Alpha (a1, a2) and Beta (1-3)
  34. True of false. Nore and Epi are NOT deactivated by COMT and MAO
  35. What other location is Nore/Epi synthesized?
    Peripheral organs such as adrenal gland
  36. Norephinephrine is mostly synthesized where?
    The locus ceoruleus nucleus of the Pons.
  37. Locations of D2-like receptors and which GCPR are they coupled to?
    Pre and Postsynaptic receptors. They are coupled to G_s
  38. Where are D1-like receptors located and what type of GCPR are they coupled to?
    Post-syn. G_i
  39. Name the two families of dopamine receptors
    • D1-like (D1 and D5)
    • D2-like (D2, D3, and D4)
  40. True or False. COMT and MAO can break down dopamine
  41. Dopamine is involved in what functions in the CNS and PNS?
    modulation of motor activity, reward and other behaviors
  42. Which two areas is dopamine mainly made in?
    Ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Also acruate nucleus of hypothalamus.
  43. What enzyme is required to make Epi from Nore?
    PNMT (phentolamine N-methyltransferase)
  44. What enzyme is required to make Nore?
    DBH (dopamine beta hydroxylase)
  45. What is made after L-Dopa?
  46. What is the rate limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines?
    The conversion of tyrosine to L-Dopa via TH (tyrosine hydroxylase)
  47. Name two enzymes that break down Catecholamines. Where are they located?
    MAO (presyn terminal) and COMT (synapse)
  48. Name 3 major catecholamines
    Dopamine, Nore, and Epi
  49. Catecholamines are neurotransmitters that are derived from ______ and possess what group?
    Tyrosine. Catechol group (ring w/ two OH)
  50. Nicotinic receptors are ___ channel receptors
    ligand gated Ion
  51. What are the two broad categories of nicotinic receptors?
    Muscle and neuronal
  52. True or false. Muscarinic receptors are GPCR
  53. Which Muscarinic receptors activate and which inhibit?
    M_odds activate and M_evens inhibit
  54. What are the two types of cholinergic receptors?
    Muscarinic and Nicotinic
  55. Name two cholinesterases and their locations
    Acetyl (synapse) and Butyryl (blood and liver)
  56. What breaks down AcH?
  57. What 2 molecules do you need to synthesize AcH?
    Choline and Acetyl Coenzyme A
  58. Which nervous system is AcH involved in?
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Neurotransmitter Systems
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