AP Bio test Chpater 5

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Culbe2014
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125976
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AP Bio test Chpater 5
Updated:
2012-01-04 20:48:43
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AP Bio test Chpater
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AP Bio test Chpater 5 1/4/2012
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  1. Organic
    any compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  2. Monomers
    simple organic molecules
  3. Polymers
    • repetitive sequences of monomers
    • formed by condensation (dehydration) synthesis
  4. Carbohydrates
    • Sugars and starches
    • Cm(H2O)n
    • Used for cellular energy, storage, and construction
  5. Monosaccharides
    • Simple (single) sugars
    • # of C = 3-6
  6. Disaccharides
    • Double sugars - 2 monosaccharides
    • Linked by condensation synthesis (removal of H- and OH-) = formation of glycosidic link between C1 and C4
    • Energy storage for organisms
  7. Oligosaccharides
    Intermediate length polymers
  8. Polysaccharides
    Storage polymers
  9. Lipids
    • All water-insoluble
    • Complex lipids: contain fatty acids,
    • saponifiable
    • fats/oils, phospholipids, waxes
    • Simple lipids: no fatty acids
    • steroids (sterols)
    • terpenes
  10. Fats and Oils
    • Fatty Acids
    • CH3(CH2)nCOOH n = 0 - 18
  11. Saturated vs. unsaturated
    • Saturated: C-C bonds single, all other bonds filled with H
    • Unsaturated: C-C bonds double/triple; less H
    • monounsaturated
    • polyunsaturated
  12. Triglycerides
    • glycerol + 3 fatty acids
    • ester linkage
    • -OH of glycerol linked to -COOH of fatty acid
    • dehydration (condensation) synthesis
    • removal of water
  13. Fats
    • long (n>10), saturated fatty acids
    • solid at room temperature
    • animal products
  14. Oils
    • short (n<10), unsaturated fatty acids
    • liquid at room temperature
    • plant products
  15. Hydrogenation
    • reaction of unsaturated triglyceride with hydrogen
    • breakage of double bonds
  16. Phospholipids
    • similar to triglycerides
    • glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate group
    • glycerol + phosphate = “head”
    • polar (charged), hydrophilic
    • 2 fatty acids = “tails”
    • nonpolar, hydrophobic
  17. Waxes
    • long-chain fatty acid linked to
    • long-chain monohydroxylic alcohols
    • or sterols
    • highly water resistant
    • used as coatings (waterproofing)
  18. Protein Conformation
    3-dimensional shape of protein
  19. native conformation
    shape under normal biological conditions
  20. Primary level
    • unique sequence of amino acids
    • determined by genetic code (DNA)
  21. Secondary level
    regular, repeated coiling or folding of polypeptide backbone
  22. Tertiary level
    • 3D shape of protein (folding of chain)
    • 2 forms
    • globular
    • fibrous
  23. Quaternary level
    interactions among and between several polypeptide chains making up one protein

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