PTA exam Integumentary

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PTA exam Integumentary
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2012-01-04 22:54:58
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PTA exam integumentary
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  1. Arterial insufficiency ulcers
    secondary to ischemia from inadequate circulation
  2. venous insufficiency ulcers
    inadequate functioning of the venous resulting in inadequate circulation and eventual tissue damage
  3. Pressure ulcers
    pressure against the skin over a bony prominence results in localized ischemia and/or tissue necrosis
  4. Neuropathic ulcers
    • combo ischemia and neuropathy
    • well defined
    • plantar surface under met heads
  5. Character. of aterial ulcers
    • lower 1/3 of leg, web spaces, toes
    • smooth edges, well defined, lack granulation, deep
    • severe pain
    • dim or absent pedal pulses
    • decreased skin temp
    • thin and shiny, yellow nails, hair loss
    • leg elevation increases pain
  6. Charact. of venous ulcers
    • prox to medial malleolus
    • irregular shape, shallow
    • mild to mod pain
    • normal pulse
    • increased edema
    • flaking, dry skin, brownish
    • leg elevation decreases pain
  7. Sharp debridement
    • removes only non-viable tissue
    • Sharp
    • Enzymatic
    • Autolytic
  8. Non-selective debridement
    • removes both viable and non-viable "mechanical"
    • wet-to-dry dressings
    • wound irrigation
    • whirlpool/hydrotherapy
  9. Abrasion
    scraping away of the surface layers of the skin
  10. contusion
    • skin is not broken
    • pain, swelling and discoloration
  11. hematoma
    • swelling or mass of blood localized
    • usually caused by a break in a blood vessel
  12. laceration
    • irregular tear or wound
    • associated with trauma
  13. penetrating wound
    enters into the interior of an organ or cavity
  14. puncture
    • made by a sharp pointed object
    • through the skin into underlying tissues
  15. ulcer
    lesion on the surface of the skin or of the mucous membrane produced by the sloughing of inflammatory, necrotic tissue
  16. Factors influencing wound healing
    • Age- decreased metabolism
    • Illness--often = diminshed O2 and nutrients at cell level
    • Infection-impacts essential activity
    • Lifestyle
    • Medication
  17. Serous
    • clear, light color
    • thin, watery
    • normal in healthy wound
  18. Sanguineous
    • red, thin watery
    • indicative of new blood vessel growth or disruption of blood vessels
  19. Serosanguineous
    • lith red or pink
    • thin, watery
    • can be normal in healing wound
  20. Seropurulent
    • opaque, yellow or tan
    • thin, watery
    • can be early warning sign of infection
  21. Purulent
    • yellow or green
    • thick, viscous
    • usually infected
  22. Pressure Ulcer Stage 1
    observable pressure related alteration of intact skin
  23. Pressure ulcer stage 2
    • partial thickness skin loss of epidermis and/or dermis
    • presents as an abrasion
  24. Pressure ulcer stage 3
    • full thickness skin loss
    • may extend down to but not through the fascia
    • deep crater w/or w/o undermining
  25. Pressure ulcer stage 4
    full thickness skin loss with extensive destruction, tissue necrosis or damage to supporting structures
  26. Superficial burn
    • outer epidermis
    • may be red with slight edema
    • no scarring
  27. Superficial partial-thickness burn
    • epidermis and upper portion of dermis
    • painful
    • blisters
    • minimal to no scarring
  28. Deep partial thickness burn
    • complete destruction of epidermis and majority of the dermis
    • discolored w/ broken blisters
    • damage to nerve endings may = only mod pain
    • hypertrophic/keloids
  29. Full-thickness burn
    • complete destruction to epi/dermis w/ partial damage to sub q fat layer
    • grafts
    • eschar
    • minimal pain
  30. subdermal burn
    • complete destruction of the epi/dermis, sub q
    • may involved muscle and bone
    • surgery
  31. Rule of nines
    • head and neck 9
    • anterior trunk 18
    • post trunk 18
    • bil ant arm/hand 9
    • bil post arm/hand 9
    • genial 1
    • bil ant leg and foot 18
    • post ant leg and foot 18
    • Babies: 9% from LE and added to head, 1% each year added back
  32. allograft/homograft
    temporary taken from another human to cover large area (usually cadaver)
  33. autograft
    permanent graft from own body
  34. heterograft (xenograft)
    temp graft from another species
  35. split-thickness graft
    only the superficial layer of the dermis with the epidermis
  36. full-thickness skin graft
    contains the full dermis and epidermis
  37. Epidermis
    • superficial
    • avascular
    • allows for hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands
  38. Dermis
    • Vascular
    • Under epidermis
    • contains hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands

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