Chem 123

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Chem 123
2010-04-07 02:49:49

General Chemistry
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  1. Titration
    the controlled addition of a base (or acid) to an acid (or base)
  2. Titrant
    solution that is added from the "buret"
  3. Equivalence Point
    "stoichiometrically equivalent" amounts of reactants have reacted (balanced chemical reaction)

    *One Theoretical Point on a titration curve and can be calculated.

    *Exact center of the vertical part of a titration curve.
  4. Endpoint
    signals that the equivalence point has been reached, usually by a sudden color change

    The endpoint is an entire pH range.
  5. Indicator
    a substance added to the titration to "indicate" the endpoint by a color change
  6. Strong Acid/Strong Base Titration (formula)
  7. Strong Acids
    HCl, H2SO4, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4
  8. Stong Bases
    LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
  9. hydrolysis
    the reaction of a weak acid or a weak base with water.
  10. midpoint
    half of the volume necessary to reach the equivalence point.

    pH= pKa at midpoint (with weak acids/bases only!)
  11. chemical kinetics
    tells us how long a reaction will go
  12. reaction rate
    how fast the products appear or reactants disappear (always +)
  13. instantaneous rate
    the rate that exists at a particular time t (calculated as the slope of the tangent to the curve at time t)
  14. initial rate
    the instantaneous rate at t=0 (calculated as the slope of the tangent to the curve at t=0)
  15. average rate
    the average reaction rate that exists over a time period, change of t (calculated as the slope of the hypotenuse of the right triangles)