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the controlled addition of a base (or acid) to an acid (or base)
solution that is added from the "buret"
"stoichiometrically equivalent" amounts of reactants have reacted (balanced chemical reaction)
*One Theoretical Point on a titration curve and can be calculated.
*Exact center of the vertical part of a titration curve.
signals that the equivalence point has been reached, usually by a sudden color change
The endpoint is an entire pH range.
a substance added to the titration to "indicate" the endpoint by a color change
Strong Acid/Strong Base Titration (formula)
HCl, H2SO4, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
the reaction of a weak acid or a weak base with water.
half of the volume necessary to reach the equivalence point.
pH= pKa at midpoint (with weak acids/bases only!)
tells us how long a reaction will go
how fast the products appear or reactants disappear (always +)
the rate that exists at a particular time t (calculated as the slope of the tangent to the curve at time t)
the instantaneous rate at t=0 (calculated as the slope of the tangent to the curve at t=0)
the average reaction rate that exists over a time period, change of t (calculated as the slope of the hypotenuse of the right triangles)
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