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- Gas exchange between the cells of the body & the atmosphere.
- -Involves breathing, gas exchange, gas utilization (cellular respiration)
A. Organs of the System
- -Upper respiratory tract- outside the thorax
- -Lower respiratory tract- within the thorax
B. Nasal Septum:
- A. Openings to the respiratory system. Guarded by hairs to block large foreign particles.
- B. divides nostrils
2. Nasal Cavity-
- -Hollow space behind the nose.
- -Is separated from the cranial cavity by ethmoid bone & hard palette
- -bony projections that divide the cavity into 3 passages:
- 1. Superior Meatus
- 2. Middle Meatus
- 3. Inferior Meatus
1. Superior Meatus
support mucous membranes & contain olfactory receptors.
2. Middle Meatus
support mucous membranes & is an air passage.
3. Inferior Meatus
support mucous membranes & is an air passage
pseudostratified ciliated epithelium with a high concentration of goblet cells & blood vessels.
- 1. Mucous moistens & traps airborne particles
- 2. Blood vessels warm air
- 3. Cilia move foreign particles to digestive tract
air filled spaces within the skull with a mucous membrane that is continuous with the nasal cavity. Function to lighten the skull & resonate (voice)
air passage, speech
Larynx (voice box)
- 1. Houses vocal chords
- 2. Prevents entry of foregin objects into the trachea
- 1. Thyroid Cartilage- Adam's Apple, caused by male hormones.
- 2. Cricoid cartilage3. Epiglottic cartilage- epiglottis- flap that closes during the swallowing to prevent entry of food/water into the trachea.
- 4. Arytenoid cartilage5. Corniculae cartilages- site of muscle attachement
1. False vocal chords
2. True vocal chords
- 1. False vocal cords- close larynx during swallowing.
- 2. True vocal cords- muscular folds in the mucous membrane that vibrate laterally when air is forced between them.
formed by shapin sound with muscles in pharynx, tongue & lips
related to tension of vocal chords
force of air across vocal chords
flexible tuve in fron of the esophagus that extends into the thorax where it splits into the right and left bronchi
1. C-shaped bands of hyaline cartilage separated by smooth muscle & connective tissue
2. Tracheal wall- ciliated mucous membrane with a high concentration of goblet cells.
branched air passages from the trachea to the alveoli
a. primary bronchi
Right & Left into each lung
b. secondary bronchi
c. tertiary bronchi-
- b. ----
- c. segmental. Each supports a bronchopulmonary segment.
- d. segments to lobules
- e. branches from bronchioles (50-80/ lobule)
respiration begins here. this is the 1st branch where gas exchange happens. 2 or more from each terminal
2-10 from each respiratory bronchiole
thin-walled outpouchings of the alveolar ducts
respiration ends here. thin-walled air sacs open to the alveolar sacs.