Psych Development

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  1. Developmental Psychology
    A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive and social change throughout the life span.
  2. Zygote
    The fertilized egg; it enters a two week period of rapid cell division and developes into an embryo.
  3. Embryo
    The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
  4. Fetus
    The developing himan organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
  5. Teratogens
    Agents such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
  6. Fatal alcohol syndrome
    Psysical and cognitive abnormalities in children cause by a pregnant woman;s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticable facial misproportions.
  7. Rooting Reflex
    a baby's tendancym when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth and search for the nipple.
  8. Habituation
    Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
  9. Maturation
    Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
  10. Schema
    A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
  11. Piaget's stages of cognitive development: Birth to 2 years
    Sensorimotor: Experiences the world through senses and actions...Object permanence and stranger anxiety.
  12. Piaget's stages of cognitive development: 2 to 6-7 years
    Preoperational.... representing things with words and images; use intuitive rather than logical reasoning... Pretend play
  13. Piaget's stages of cognitive development: 7 to 11 years
    Concrete operational: thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations...Conservation. Math
  14. Piaget's stages of cognitive development: 12 through adulthood
    Formal operation: abstract reasoning...Abstract logic, potential for mature moral reasoning
  15. Assimilation
    Interpreting one's NEW experience in terms of one's EXISTING schemas....Interpret information by means of established schemas
  16. Accomodation
    Adapting one's CURRENT understandings (Schemas) to incorporate NEW information.... Adjust a schema to incorporate new information
  17. Cognition
    All the mental activitues associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating.
  18. Sensorimotor stage
    In Piaget's theory, (Birth to about 2 yrs old) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
  19. Object Permanence
    The awareness that things contins to exist even when not percieved.
  20. Preoperational stage
    2-7 yrs...stage during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
  21. Conservation
    The principal that properties such as mass, volume and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
  22. Egocentrism
    The preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
  23. Theory of mind
    People's ideas about their own and other's mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
  24. COncrete Operational stage
    Stage of cognitive developement from 6 to 11 yrs during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
  25. Formal Operational stage
    Stage of cognitive development starting at age 12 during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
  26. Stranger Anxiety
    The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, begininngin 8 months of age.
  27. Attachment
    An emotional tie with another person; seen in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
  28. Critical period
    An optimal period shortly after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
  29. Imprinting
    The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
  30. Basic Trust
    According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
  31. Self-concept
    A sense of one's identity and personal worth
  32. Menarche
    The first menstrual period
  33. Identity
    One's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
  34. Intimacy
    in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
  35. Menopause
    The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
  36. Authoritarian parenting style
    Parents impose harsh rules and expect obedience.
  37. Permissive parenting
    parents submit to their children;s desires, make few demands and use little punishment
  38. Authoritative Parenting
    Parents are demanding and responsive. Exert control not only by setting rules and enforcing them but also by explaining the reasons and, especially with older children, encouraging open discussion and alloing exceptions when making rules.
  39. Why do we have few memories before the age of 3?
    Because of infantile amnesia. The brain can't remember things that happened before age of 3.
  40. Piaget's theory of cognitive development: In stages or continuous?
    Piaget proposed that children's reasoning developes in a series of stages, and that children actively construct and modify their understanding of the world as they interact with it. Psychologists currently believe that cognitive development is more continuous, with stages starting earlier and less abruptly
  41. Kohlberg's moral ladder
    As moral development progresses, you become less ecocentric and self centered, to the wider social world
  42. Cross-sectional Study
    A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another...Suggested that intelligence declines steadily after early adulthood, but it's flawed because it doesn't consider generational differences in education and other life experiences.
  43. Longitudinal Study
    Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period...Suggested intelligence was stable until very late in life. Failed to account those who dropped out of studies, so the dummies may have gone and all that's left are the smart ones.
  44. Crystallized intelligence
    One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age...Doesn't decline in later life
  45. Fluid Intelligence
    One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
  46. Why is the path of adulthood not closely linked to one's age?
    Life crises are triggered by major events (mid-life crisis, divorce) or chance occurences (meeting future life partner) rather than predictable stages. The social clock (the "right-time" for things to happen) varies from place to place and from time to time
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Psych Development
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