ch 12.txt

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ch 12.txt
2012-01-05 22:30:12
anatomy SCIT 1407

Flashcard Questions Dr. Alegre made for Chapter 12: Neural Tissue for SCIT 1407.
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  1. Satellite cells, or ________ surround the neuron cell bodies in ganglia. They regulate the environment around the neuron, (like astrocyte in CNS).
  2. Schwann cells (only in PNS) or _________ form a sheath around peripheral axons.
    neurilemma cells
  3. The outer surface of the Schwann cell is called the __________.
  4. ___________ line the central canal and ventricles. They are filled with CSF.
    Ependymall cells
  5. What are the largest and most numerous neuroglia in the CNS.
  6. _____________ is the membranous insulation called myelin which increases the speed of the action potential. When the sheath is lined it is said to be myelinated (white matter), unmyelinated (gray matter).
  7. __________ is a "wondering police force" and "janitorial service" engulfing cellular debris, waste products, and pathogens.
  8. _________ are changes in the transmembrane potential that cannot spread far from the area surrounding the site of stimulation.
    Graded potentials
  9. ________ are Na+ ions that enter the cell and are attracted to the negative changes along the inner surface of the membrane.
    Leak channels
  10. The transmembrane potential at the ______ ______ and ______ _____ represent an integration of all the excitatory and inhibitory stimuli affecting the neuron at that moment.
    • axon hillock
    • initial segment
  11. Excitatory and inhibitory stimuli are integrated through interactions between _______ ______. This interaction is the simplest level of information processing in the nervous system.
    postsynaptic potentials
  12. The basic functional unit of the nervous system is ______.
  13. _______ separate and protect the neurons, provide a supportive framework, act as phagocytes and help regulate composition of interstitial fluid.
  14. The CNS consists of the ______ and the _____.
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  15. The PNS includes all the __________.
    neural tissue outside the CNS
  16. Synapses that release _______ are known as cholinergic synapses.
  17. Synapses that release ________ are known as adrenergic synapses.
  18. What synapse is by far the most abundant type?
    chemical cynapses
  19. Norepinephrine is also called _________ and synapses that release Ne are known as _________ synapses. Ne typically has an excitatory, depolarization effect on the post synaptic membrane.
    • noradrenaline
    • adrenergic
  20. ____________ are characteristics of excitable membrane, are capable of conducting/ generating an action potential. Examples of excitable membrane: axons of unipolar and multipolar neurons. The sarcolemma of skeletal muscle fibers and cardiac muscle cells.
    Volted regulated channels
  21. Nerves connected to the brain are called _______ ______.
    cranial nerves
  22. Nerves attached to the spinal cord are called ____ ______.
    spinal nerves
  23. The ________ division of the PNS brings sensory information to the CNS from receptors.
  24. The _______ division of the PNS curves motor commands from the CNS to muscles and glands.
  25. Sodium and Potassium ion channels are either passive or active. Passive channels, or _______ _____ are always _______.
    • leak channels
    • open
  26. Active channels, or ________ channels open and close in response to specific stimuli.
    gated channels
  27. What are the 3 classes of gated channels?
    • chemically regulated
    • voltage regulated
    • mechanically regulated
  28. Temporal is the addition of stimuli occurring in _____ ______. This occurs at a single synapse that is actively repeated.
    rapid succession
  29. Spatial occurs when simultaneous stimuli at different locations have a _____ _____ on the transmembrane potential. They involve multiple synapses that are active simultaneously.
    cumulative effect
  30. What is a graded depolarization caused by the arrival of a neurotransmitter at the postsynaptic membrane?
    EPSP= excititory postsynaptic potential
  31. What is a graded hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane? It may result from the opening of chemically regulated potassium channels.
    IPSP= inhibitory postsynaptic potential
  32. While this hyperpolarization continues, the neuron is said to be ______.
  33. The ______ division has both somatic and autonomic components.
  34. The _____ controls skeletal muscle contractions.
    SNS- somatic nervous system
  35. _______ contractions are under conscience control.
  36. The ________ or visceral motor system provides autonomic regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glandular secretions at the subconscious level.
    ANS- automati nervous system
  37. The perikaryon, or ______ ______ has a coarse, grainy appearance.
    cell body
  38. The base, or ______ ______ of the axon in a multipolar neuron is attached to the cell body at the thickened region known as the ______ _______.
    • critical segment
    • axon hillock
  39. ________ is a specialized site where the neuron communicates with another cell.
    synaptic terminal
  40. What are the largest and myelinated axons that can carry action potentials at speeds up to 140 meters per second or over 300 mph?
    Type A fibers
  41. What are the smaller and myelinated axons that speeds average around 18 meters per second or 40 mph?
    Type B fibers
  42. What are the unmyelinated axons that are smaller, very slow, are about 1 meter per second or 2 mph?
    Type C fibers
  43. The Na-K exchange pump requires energy in the form of _______.
  44. Action potential jumping from node to node rather than moving along the axon in a series of tiny steps is called ______ ______.
    saltatory propagation