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Economic situation in US at the end of WWI
First red scare in the US. When & Why.
1919. Communist party formed in US. Bolshevik revolution in Russia caused Americans to fear similar result in US.
Palmer Raids. Why & Result.
- Attorney Gen. Palmer's house blown by letter bomb.
- Federal agents raid offices of Union of Russian Workers in 12 cities.
- Send 249 anarchists & criminals back to Russia.
Northward movement of blacks into cities for work.
Why race riots. "Red summers". Where largest.
- Rumors of black men raping white women.
- 1919 summer of 25 race riots.
- Chicago? or Elaine, AR?
Why KKK again in 1910's. Where start/grow.
- Immigration high. Anti blacks, catholics, jews, & immigrants.
- Atlanta to North & Mid-west.
Emergency Immigration Act (1921)
restricted immigration to 3% of foreign-born of any nationality as shown in 1910 census
National Origins Act (1924). Immigration drop.
2% of foreign-born of any nationality as shown in 1890 census. (85% N.&W. Europe) 150,000 ppl/yr.
19th Amendment. When ratified.
Women get voting rights. August 18, 1920.
Scandalous women challenged traditional society. smoked, drank, danced, & dressed scandalously.
Hoover's presidential platform.
End of US poverty
Stock market problems in late 1920's
- Stock bought on credit.
- Prices artificially inflated.
- Stock seemed invincible.
- Companies not turning real profits.
"Black Tuesday". When.
Stock market crash that revealed Depression. Market from 87 bil. to 55 bil. Oct. 1929.
Problems with American Economy in 1920's
- Companies not turning profit, but stocks rising.
- Lack of industry diversity.
- Profits not going to workers.
- Cars & construction profitable, but limited.
- Ppl still investing in old industries that were going downhill.
Unemployment % in 1930's
25%. 2 mil. men became hobos.
"Dust Bowl". Where & When. Okies and Arkies.
Extreme drought. Mid-America (TX-ND). 1930-1940. OK&AR's who moved to Cali.
Agricultural Marketing Act (1929)
Board that bought unused crops. Many farmers wouldn't participate.
Tariffs. Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930).
Tax on imported goods. Highest tariff in US history.
Dawes Plan (1924). Chain reaction in Depression.
Lowered reparations for Germ. US loans Germ. money. Germ pays Brit & France. B&F invest in US businesses.
"Bonus Army". How dealt with.
US Vets wanted bonuses early. Police cleared "army" and burned camp. 100 vets injured. 2 killed. Hoover looks insensitive to public.
FDR's radio program to connect w/ public. Reached 12 mil. homes.
Emergency Banking Act. When.
March 1933. Banks with bad credit must close or merge.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA, 1933). Flaws. Why & when ended.
1st New Deal. Payed farmers not to plant raising farm prices. Favored large farms. Removed by Supreme Court 1936.
National Recovery Act (NRA, 1933) and National Recovery Administration? Flaws. Why & when ended.
1st New Deal. Est. minimum wage - "blanket code". Abolished child labor. Favored large businesses & codes contained loopholes. Removed by Supreme Court 1935.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, 1933).
1st New Deal. Built dams - est. cheap electricity. Controlled flooding, planted trees, helped farmers.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC, 1933). Advantages & disadvantages1
1st New Deal. Gave urban men work upgrading rural areas (forests, reservoirs, parks). Required workers to send money home. Few camps for minorities.
Dr. Francis E. Townsend. His plan.
New Deal critic. Retired doc. Pension plan. 60+ retirees get $200/mo., but have to spend in full.
Father Charles E. Coughlin. Rise to fame. Want.
Detroit priest. Broadcast radio sermons were picked up by CBS - 40 mil. listeners. Wanted to remove New Deal.
Huey P. Long. His program.
New Deal critic. Louisiana gov. & sen. "Share Our Wealth" prog. redistributed rich's money to poor.
"Second New Deal"
more government involvement. relied less on private individuals or big businesses to write plans, ect.
Social Security Act (1935). Established.
2nd new deal. gave $15/mo. for workless. Est. Pension Plan = workers put in $10-85/mo. and at age 65 started getting returns. (most died by this time)
Works Progress Administration (WPA, 1935). Branches.
2nd new deal. renovated public bldgs, airports, roads, & bridges. Branches incl. Writers, Arts, Music, & Theatre Projects. Paid artists to write, paint public murals, ect. Sought slaves to tell stories for books.
Chiang Kai-Shek threat to the Japanese.
He was trying to unite China & Manchuria (owned by Japs)
Mukden Incident (1931).
Jap. bomb their own railroads in Manchuria & blame China. Japs renamed Man. & resigned from League of Nations.
When Hitler comes to power. Consolidation of power.
1933. Reichstag fire - legislative bldg., Enabling Act - gave him extreme legislative power, outlawed all parties except Nazi.
Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937.
- 35 & 36 - arms embargo, travel on ships at own risk
- 37 - fighting countries must buy in cash & self carry
Axis powers in WWI
Germany, Italy, & Japan
Rape of Nanking (1937)
Jap 7 week rampage on Nanjing, China. To this day Japs still deny it.
Japs. sink clearly-marked US "Panay" then apologize and claim it as an "accident", so US doesn't revolt.
Chamberlain & Hitler meet in Munich. What appeasement.
To make a peace agreement. Hitler gets Sudetenland (In Czech Republic)
When & why WWII begins.
September 1, 1939. Germany invaded Poland. Brit and France declare war on Germ.
Battle of Britain.
German air raid on UK. Germ bombs important areas. Brit bombs French capitol, Berlin. Germ bombs London for 56 straight nights. Brit outnumbered 4-1...but takes down 2-1. Brit wins, but bankrupted.
Plan to eliminate cash aspect of buying weapons. President could lend arms to nations "vital to the defense of the US" if weapons were returned at end of fighting.
FDR & Churchill's agreement to destroy Nazi Tyranny. Gave broad goals of the war.
Tojo. Opinion of American character.
Japanese Prime Minister. US had weak will & was timid.
Engineered attack on Pearl Harbor. Reluctancy.
Isoroku Yamamoto. Harvard grad & US ambassador. Knew US was powerful.
Where US believed would be attacked December 1941
Philippines, Panama, California
Pearl Harbor date.
December 7, 1941 - 7:55 AM
Jap. hit ammunition on board. 3 decks collapsed accordion style. 1000 men were trapped alive underwater till Christmas (17 days). Only 30 survived.
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