Chemical Reactions

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Author:
akilaandtheb
ID:
126160
Filename:
Chemical Reactions
Updated:
2012-01-05 23:31:14
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Chemistry
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Description:
AP CHEM
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  1. Combustion: Any hydrocarbon + Oxygen ->
    CO2 + H2O
  2. Addition: Requires an Alkene (double) or Alkyne (triple) with halogen or halogen acid or H2.

    Ex: Propene with clorine Gas
    C3H6 + Cl2 -> C3H7Cl
  3. Substituion: Hydrogen atom in an Alkane molecule gets substituted by something else.

    Methane reacts with excess Br
    CH4 + 2Br2 ->
    CH4 + 2Br2 -> CBr4 + 2H2
  4. Esterification: Carboxylic Acid + Alcohol ->
    ester + water
  5. Suponification: ester + base ->
    salt + alcohol.
  6. Solubility Rules:
    NO3- / ClO3-
    Cl-
    Br- / I-
    SO42-
    • NO3- / ClO3- : All soluble
    • Cl- : Ag+, Hg22+ (mercury 1) and Pb2+
    • Br- / I- : Ag+, Hg22+ (mercury 1), Hg2+ and Pb2+
    • SO42- : Ag, Hg2, Pb, Ba, Ca, Sr
  7. Insoluble Molecules
    • Co32-
    • CrO42-
    • OH-
    • PO43-
    • SO32-
    • S2-
  8. Formation of a Gas:

    Any sulfide + Acid form ->
    H2S and Salt
  9. Formation of a Gas:

    Any Carbonate + Acid
    CO2 + salt + water
  10. Formation of a Gas:

    Any sulfite + acid ->
    S02 gas + salt + water
  11. Formation of a Gas:

    Any ammonium salt plus any soluble strong hydroxide ->
    NH3 + Salt + Water
  12. Synthesis:

    Metal + nonmetal ->
    binary salt
  13. Synthesis:

    Metal Oxide + Water ->
    Base
  14. Synthesis:

    Nonmetallic oxides + water ->
    acids
  15. Synthesis:

    metalic oxides + nonmetallic oxides ->
    salts
  16. Decomposition:

    Metallic carbonates ->
    metallic oxides and carbon dioxide
  17. Decomposition:

    Metallic chlorates ->
    metallic chlorides + oxygen
  18. Decomposition:

    Ammonium carbonate ->
    ammonia, water, and carbon dioxide
  19. Decomposition:

    Sulfurous Acid ->
    sulfur dioxide + water
  20. Decomposition:

    Carbonic Acid ->
    carbon dioxide + water
  21. Decomposition:

    Hydrogen peroxide
    water and oxygen
  22. Decomposition:

    Ammonium hydroxide ->
    ammonia and water
  23. Single Replacement
    REMEMBER CL replaces I
  24. Hydrolysis Reactions:

    salts of strong acids + weak base
    ex: NH4CL, NH4NO3
    acid + base (acidic)
  25. Hydrolysis Reactions:

    salts of a weak acid + strong base ->
    Ex: KCN NaF
    Acid + Base (basic)
  26. Hydrolysis Reactions:

    Salts of strong acids + strong base
    Ex: NaCL, NaNO3
    never hydrolyze! solution is always nuetral
  27. Hydrolysis Reactions:

    salts ofa weak acid + salts of a weak base ->
    may hydrolyze, as an acid base, or nuetral solution.

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