Medical-Surgical Nursing

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Author:
plbernal
ID:
126180
Filename:
Medical-Surgical Nursing
Updated:
2012-01-06 03:22:54
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Vocabulary Chapter Nine
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Description:
Gentetics and Genomics Perspectives in Nursing
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  1. Carrier
    Person who is heterozygous; possessing two different alleles of a gene pair
  2. Chromosome
    Microscopic structures in the cell nucleus that contain genetic information and are constant in number in a species
  3. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    The primary genetic material in humans consisting of nitrogenous bases, a sugar group, and phosphate combined into a double helix
  4. Dominant
    A genetic trait that is normally expressed when a person has a gene mutation on one of a pair of chromosomes and the normal form of the gene is on the other chromosome
  5. Genetics
    The scientific study of heredity; how specific traits or predispositions are transmitted from parents to offspring
  6. Genome
    The total genetic complement of an individual genotype
  7. Genomics
    The study of the human genome, including gene sequencing, mapping, and function
  8. Genotype
    The genes and the variations therein that a person inherits from his or her parents
  9. Human Genome Project
    An international research effort aimed at identifying and characterizing the order of every base in the human genome
  10. Mutation
    A heritable alteration in the genetic material
  11. Nondisjunction
    The failure of a chromosome pair to separate appropriately during meiosis, resulting in abnormal chromosome numbers in reproductive cells (gamates)
  12. Pedigree
    A diagrammatic representation of a family history
  13. Phenotype
    A person’s entire physical, biochemical, and physiologic makeup, as determined by the person’s genotype and environmental factors
  14. Predisposition Testing
    Testing that is used to determine the likelihood that a healthy person with or without a family history of a condition will develop a disorder
  15. Prenatal Screening
    Testing that is used to identify whether a fetus is at risk for a birth defect such as Down Syndrome or spina bifida
  16. Presymptomatic Testing
    Genetic testing that is used to determine whether persons with a family history of a disorder, but nor current symptoms, have the gene mutation
  17. Recessive
    A genetic trait that is expressed only when a person has two copies of a mutant autosomal gene or a single copy of a mutant X-linked gene in the absence of another X chromosome
  18. Variable Expression
    Variation in the degree to which a trait is manifested; clinical severity
  19. X-linked
    Located on the X chromosome

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