KCC ART 101 SOUZA EXAM 2

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miv
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KCC ART 101 SOUZA EXAM 2
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2010-04-19 08:28:32
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Exam 2
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  1. RELATIVITY
    • The idea that the meaning behind a work of art is relevant or relative to the time and place in which it was created.
    • It is the idea that no independent absolute value exists but rather every moral decision or truth that one believes, is true only from their frame of reference and particular time.
    • Truth (in art) becomes what is meaningful or significant within a given context.
  2. SCALE
    The size relation of one thing to another.
  3. PROPORTION
    The size relationship of parts to a whole and to one another.
  4. REPETITION
    The act or process or an instance of repeating or being repeated. In art, repetition of visual elements gives a composition unity, continuity, flow and emphasis.
  5. THEME
    A unifying idea, image, or motif, repeated or developed throughout a work.
  6. RHYTHM
    The regular or ordered repetition of dominant and subordinate elements or units within a design.
  7. UNITY
    The appearance or similarity, consistency, or oneness. Interrelational factors that cause various elements to appear as part of a single complete form.
  8. VARIETY WITHIN A THEME
    Variety is the quality or condition of being diversified or various, a collection of unlike things. In art, balance between unity and variety creates interest and life. Variety counters the boredom and sameness of unity.
  9. BALANCE
    An arrangement of parts achieving a state of equilibrium between opposing forces or influences. Major types are symmetrical and assymmetrical.
  10. ASSYMETRICAL
    Without symmetry.
  11. SYMMETRY
    A design (or composition) with identical or nearly identical form on opposite sides of a dividing line or central axis: formal balance.
  12. DIRECTIONAL LINES/FORCES
    • Paths for the eye to follow provided by actual or implied lines.
    • Good design and composition in art incorporates directional lines/forces to provide balance and stability in a dynamic work of art.
  13. CONTRAST
    • The juxtaposition of strongly dissimilar elements.
    • It creates drama, interest, excitement and stimulation.
  14. DOMINANCE
    • Position or state of being dominant or in control.
    • The state of being predominant over others.
  15. STYLIZATION
    Simplified or exaggerated visual form that emphasizes particular or contrived design qualities.
  16. PREHISTORY
    Before writing. Approximately 5000 years ago. First literature - story of Gilgamesh.
  17. THE HUNT
    • Subject of prehistoric art.
    • Art reflects what is important or significant to people when they lived.
    • What was important in prehistoric times = survival = food and fertility = art depicting food and fertility.
  18. FERTILITY
    • Capable of producing offspring.
    • Subject of prehistoric art.
    • Art reflects what is important or significant to people when they lived.
    • What was important in prehistoric times = survival = food and fertility = art depicting food and fertility.
  19. NATURALISM
    An art style in which the curves and contours of a subject are accurately and realistically portrayed.
  20. ABSTRACTION
    Art that departs significantly from natural appearances.
  21. NATIVE ARTS
    • Ancestral Art
    • NonWestern Art
    • Art that expresses 'who are you' and 'where are you from'.
    • Native = Originating, growing, or produced in a certain place or region.
  22. TOTEMISM
    • The practice of having a natural object or animate being, as a bird or animal, as the emblem of a family, clan, or group.
    • Totem = An object such as an animal or plant that serves as an emblem of a family or clan; it often symbolizes original, prehuman ancestors.
    • Totemism and totem art reflects the importance of ancestors to certain cultures.
    • As in the Native American totem pole.
  23. IMPORTANCE OF ANCESTORS
    • Totemism and totem art reflects the importance of ancestors to certain cultures.
    • As in the Native American totem pole.
  24. FERTILITY
    Did not only mean to be able to produce offspring but also reflected the importance of the abundance of nature for survival.
  25. CYCLICAL RITES
    Native art works were often created for ceremonies that celebrated recurring events or cycles - such as harvest, puberty or adulthood or death (circle of life).
  26. RITES OF PASSAGE
    Rites of passage were celebrations or initations of entering or passing into adulthood. The individual who completed the rites were deemed worthy to be given more respect, knowledge and responsibility.
  27. STATUS
    • High standing; prestige.
    • Native art reflected status. More status = more knowledge and respect.
  28. SHAMAN, MEDICINAL, MEDICINE MAN
    • A member of certain tribal societies who acts as a medium between the visible world and an invisible spirit world and who practices magic or sorcery for purposes of healing, divination, and control over natural
    • events.
    • Tools or instruments that were created for the shaman or medicine man were part of their native arts.
  29. FUNERALS
    Important rite of passage = death. There were many native art works where subject was about death and these works reflected the different cultures beliefs about the afterlife.
  30. GREECE - What makes Greek art Greek?
    • Classical world.
    • No paintings on canvas or walls. Grecian art was predominantly sculpture or achitecture.
    • Things that had its origins in Greece include language, math, mythology, plays and the Olympics.
    • Themes in Grecian art reflect these subjects or concepts: plays for celebrations in the ampitheater and ceramicware reflect myths, gaming culture, the ideal "athletic" body and the roles of women and men.
  31. ARCHAIC
    • 800-550 BC
    • The frontal pose, the left foot extended forward, the arms attached or close to the hips, the rigid pose, and the mysterious smile (perhaps echoing the prosperity and relative peace of the time) are all characteristics of the Kouros and Kore statues of the Archaic period. The sculpture of the Archaic Greek style is evidently influenced by ancient Egypt as the commerce between the two countries was flourishing.
    • Ancient, oldest Greek art works.
    • Sculpture was characterized by smile.
    • Stiff naturalism - "Egyptian one foot in front of the other."
    • Arms and hands were kept close to the sides of the body.
    • Sylized patterns.
    • Women were clothed.
  32. CLASSICAL
    • 550-300 BC
    • In the art of Greece during the Classical period the characteristic smile of the Archaic sculpture is replaced by a solemn facial expression. Ancient Greeks believed that suppression of the emotions is a noble characteristic of all civilized men, while the public display of human emotion is a sign of barbarism.
    • Sculpture reflected no smile or emotion because this was their idea of perfection. To have emotion was to have no control and to be imperfect.
    • Artists hold their aesthetic standards to a quest for ideal beauty; this leads to their depicting the human figure in a naturalistic manner because it is the first time in human history that the human body is studied for its aesthetic values. They replace the stiffness of the human figure from the Archaic period with a
    • free-flowing form more true to life.
    • Sculptures of the ideal perfect man.
    • Poses reflected in sculpture were natural, refined and varied.
    • Contrapposto - weight on one foot - reflected a sense of calmness was common in classical Greek sculpture.
    • Bronzes were made with pukas to insert glass eyes for more realism.
  33. HELLENISTIC
    • 300 - 100 BC
    • Style of the later phase of ancient Greek art (300-100 BCE) characterized by emotion, drama, and interaction of sculptural forms with the surrounding space. Subjects were portrayed realistically, not idealistically.
    • Period after Alexander the Great's conquests. Reflects a period of eclecticism. Artists expand their work with dramatic poses and emotions, sweeping lines, and high contrasts of light and shadow.
    • Instead of depicting ideals such as logic and suppressed emotion or perfect beauty, the artists explore reality.
    • Humane themes such as childhood, old age, ugliness, and suffering are now of interest.
    • Decorative art.
    • Not ideal, real.
    • Arts expresses action, tension, movement and exaggerated emotions.
  34. CONTRAPPOSTO
    • Classical contrapposto is an Italian term used in the visual arts to describe a human figure standing with most of its weight on one foot so that its shoulders and arms twist off-axis from the hips and legs.
    • This gives the figure a more dynamic, or alternatively relaxed appearance.
  35. PARTHENON
    • .
    • Erected between 447 and 438 B.C., the Parthenon in Greece was designed by Iktinos, when Greek architecture was at the height of its sophistication (during the Classical period). Represented ideals of perfection and the ideal significant themes during the Classical period of art. Temple honoring Athena when won war against Persians.
    • Due to the presence of optical illusions, the Parthenon has what are known as “optical refinements” built into its structure. It must be stressed that these illusions are physiological and psychological in nature. They are not geometrical effects.
    • To the unaided eye, columns tend to look narrower in the middle than at the top or bottom. Each of the columns in the Parthenon was built with a slight bulge in the middle, to make them appear “straight”.
    • Columns tend to “contract” near the top, and hence the base of each column was built a little thicker. Columns further away from the centre appear thicker. To counteract this effect, the columns in the
    • centre were built a little thicker.
    • Furthermore, the spacing between the columns appear smaller towards the centre. Therefore, they were spaced wider apart accordingly.
    • Horizontal lines appear to “dip” in the middle, and hence the centre portion of the floor was slightly raised.
    • Furthermore, the columns were slanted inwards so that they would meet if they were extended one mile into the sky. This to counteract the effects of hatched-line illusions. The triangular outline of the roof makes the top part of each column appear to slant outwards.
  36. OPTICAL REFINEMENTS
    • In Greek architecture and derivatives, a set of adjustments of normal shaping and spacing made supposedly to counteract the somatic peculiarities of human vision.
    • The Parthenon was the epitome of Greek architecture and reflected many optical refinements to give the appearance of perfection.
  37. ENTASIS
    • In classical architecture, the slight swelling or bulge in the center of a column, which corrects the illusion of concave tapering produced by parallel straight lines.
    • A slight convexity or swelling, as in the shaft of a column, intended to compensate for the illusion of concavity resulting from straight sides.
  38. THE CLASSICAL WORLD
    The art of the ancient Greece and Rome. Classical defines something that is so excellent it transcends time.
  39. ROME - What's Roman about Roman art?
    • Rome was cosmopolitan. Social elements such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new (architectural) solutions of their own.
    • The arch is not a Roman creation, but the ingenius way it was used to
    • build aquaducts, sewers and buildings such as the Coliseum and Pantheon
    • make it Roman.
    • Rome was eclectic.
    • Loved all things Greek and often borrowed from Greek culture.
    • Funerary portrait busts are unique to Romans - statues and monuments to self.
  40. COLISEUM/COLOSSEUM
    • An elliptical amphitheatre in the center of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering.
    • The Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles - mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology.
  41. PANTHEON
    • .
    • Roman eclecticism is reflected in th Pantheon.
    • From Greek - meaning "every God".
    • The Pantheon was a temple to all the gods and religions of Ancient Rome.
    • Features Greek facade and coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome.
  42. FUNERAL PORTRAIT BUSTS
    • Private portrait sculpture was most closely associated with funerary contexts. This funerary context for portrait sculpture was rooted in the longstanding tradition of the display of wax portrait masks, called imagines, in funeral processions of the upper classes to commemorate their distinguished ancestry. Aristocratic families were able to celebrate their history of public service while honoring their deceased relatives. The Romans believed that ancestry was the best indicator of a man's ability, and so if you were the descendant of great military commanders, then you, too, had the potential to be one as well.
  43. ECLECTICISM
    • Borrowing from another culture and time.
    • The practice of selecting or borrowing from earlier styles and combining the borrowed elements.
  44. EGYPT - What is Egyptian about Egyptian art?
    • Egyptian art reflects the best views at all times for clarity.
    • Egyptian art was standardized. There was a formula for the way to draw figures.
    • When you look at Egyptian paintings (and carvings) you’ll notice:
    • the face is always sideways
    • the upper body always faces forward
    • the legs and feet face sideways
    • the one eye that shows is always painted on the side of the face
    • The Egyptians wanted to show only the most important parts of the body and they wanted to show those parts in the most attractive and clear way.
    • Important themes were death and afterlife, everday life, and gods.
  45. PYRAMIDS
    • Were tombs.
    • Pyramids reflect Egyptian beliefs about death and afterlife.
    • They believed that you can take things buried with you to the afterlife. Created sculptures of animals, people, etc. they wished to take to the afterlife.
  46. POST & BEAM/LINTEL
    • In architecture, a structural system that uses two or more uprights or posts to support a horizontal beam that spans the space between them.
  47. CANTILEVER
    • A beam or slab projecting a substantial distance beyond its supporting post or wall; a projection supported only at one end.
  48. CORBELLING
    • Corbelling is the original method of making arches: a series of stones or bricks that protrude beyond the lower level to finally cover the arch.
  49. TRUE ROMAN ARCH
    • The arch itself they did not originate in Rome, but they applied it with great skill and success to various works of utility (aquaducts), and made it a universal feature in civil buildings.
  50. TUNNEL/BARREL VAULT
    • Pointed = Gothic
    • The barrel vault is the simplest form of a vault: effectively a series of arches placed side by side, i.e., one after another.
    • A barrel vault, also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance.
  51. FLYING BUTTRESS
    • A flying buttress, or arc-boutant, is a specific type of buttress usually found on religious buildings, not all of which are cathedrals.
    • They are used to transmit the horizontal force of a vaulted ceiling through the walls and across an intervening space (which might be used for an aisle, chapel or cloister), to a counterweight outside the building.
  52. BALLOON (FRAME) ARCHITECTURE
    • A system of framing a building in which wood studs extend in one piece from the top of the foundation sill-plate to the top roof plate; floor joists are nailed to the studs and are supported by horizontal boards.
    • WWII rapid building style.
    • The balloon frame was based on much lighter precut two-by-four-inch studs positioned sixteen inches apart and held together by factory-produced nails.
  53. CABLE SUSPENSION
    • Engineering method where cables may carry mainly its own weight or a uniformly distributed load.
  54. FERROCEMENT
    Ferrocement is a composite material which is used in building or sculpture with cement, sand, water and wire or mesh material (framework)—often called a thin shell in North America.
  55. BRICK & MORTAR
    Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar to build up brick structures such as walls.
  56. EARLY CHRISTIAN ART
    • First images of Christ & Buddha are not portraits but icons.
    • Early Roman Christians were zealous. They didn't want to join the army. They were often persecuted. The reliegion was new and therefore the art reflected Jesus as young and strong.
    • Christian dead were buried not cremated.
    • Christians were buried in Roman catacombs. Catacombs are where the first Christian art was seen. Jesus = Young Roman boy shepherd with ram around his neck.

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