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2012-01-06 17:35:16
Biology DAT

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  1. Anaerobic
    absence of oxygen
  2. Autotrophs
    capture energy from their environment
  3. Spontaneous Generation
    living organisms arize from nonliving

    1665 Reidi challenged by showing that larvae can ONLY arise from meat when exposed to air
  4. Theory of inorganic synthesized to form organic
    • Under primordial conditions inorganic substances accumilate and synthesize amino acids, which then form larger molecules such as proteins and/or nucleic acids
    • Miller 1953
  5. exergonic
    rxs that release energy. These reactions usually need some activation energy - most often heat
  6. endergonic
    rxs that require energy
  7. catalysts
    lowers activation energy for a rx to occur. Do not affect the energy transfer of the reaction and are not consumed by reaction.
  8. biological catalysts
  9. enzymes
    allow necessary reactions to take place in ordinary temperatures. Can speed up or slow down a reaction
  10. lock and key model
    • substrate = key
    • enzyme = lock
    • activation site - where lock and key come together.
  11. induced fit
    the enzyme slightly changes to fit the substrate
  12. cofactor
    inorganic (usually iron, zinc, copper).

    Molecule that helps enzyme function
  13. coenzyme
    • Molecule that helps enzyme funciton
    • Organic - vitamins,
  14. Compounds that inhibit enzyme function
    • competitive inhibitors
    • noncompetitive inhibitors
    • allosteric sites
  15. Competitive inhibitors
    molecules that mimic the substrate and block the enzyme's active site
  16. Noncompetitive inhibitors
    Molecules that bind at site other than active site, altering the shape of the enzyme's active site and making it unstable
  17. Allosteric sites
    sites other than the active site that are involved in enzyme activity.

    Molecules will bind at allosteric sites may stimulate or inhibit the enzyme's activity
  18. Feedback inhibition
    principle of enzyme regulation.

    Product of the reaction also acts as the inhibitor.

    Idea that when low amounds of a compound (amino acid) is present then the enzyme pathway switches "on" and "off" when an abundence is availbe.
  19. Allosteric regulation is an example of what
    feedback inhibition. Varying amounts of allosteric compounds can inhibit or stimulate enzyme function therefore regulating enzyme activity.
  20. Describe chemical pathways and give an example
    the transfer or energy from on form to another for the use by cells.

    An example is metabolism
  21. How are cells and energy related?
    Cells create, store, and release energy
  22. anabolic reactions
    require energy - create large molecules from small
  23. catabolic
    release energy - break down large molecules to small
  24. Is anaerobic or aerobic respiration more effecient in producting energy?
  25. Aerobic Respiration - summarize with equation
    Glucose + Oxide --> Water + Carbon Dioxide + Energy
  26. Describe glycolysis
    Begins with respiration (aerobic or anerobic) by the breakdown of glucose into small amounts of ATP in the cytoplasm of the cell.


    10 step process that ultimately converts glucose into a pyruvate (3-carbon compound).
  27. Krebs cycle & electron transport chain (ETC)
    During Cellular respiration (aerobic) the breakdown of glucose in and around mitochondrion yielding large amounts of ATP.
  28. Anerobic respiration
    Products of glycolysis are further fermented into lactate or ethanol - no additional ATP (like in Krebs and ETC)
  29. Fermentation - give two examples of when this occurs
    occurs in simple organisms such as yeast and bacteria

    • occurs in oxygen-deficient environments
    • such as vertebrate muscle cells after strenuous activity.
  30. 2 states of glycolysis
    energy investement and energy payoff
  31. energy investment state of glycolysis
    2 ATP are expended, and glucose passes through several steps until it is catabolized into two 3-carbon molecules
  32. energy payoff state of glycolysis (include what happens in presense of oxygen -aerobic)
    EACH 3-carbon molecule yeilds...

    2 pyruvate, 2 ATP and 2 NADH (high energy electron carrier)

    In the presense of oxygen -2 pyruvate molecules enter mitochondria and Krebs cycle and ETC
  33. heterotroph
    relies on the consumption of other oranisms for food
  34. Opposite of respiration
  35. Photosynthesis and Respiration in relation to glucose and carbon dioxide
    Photosynthesis: carbon dioxide reduces to form glucose

    Respiration: glucose oxidizes to form carbon dioxide
  36. Reaction mechanism of photosynthesis
    water + carbon dioxide + energy --> glucose + oxygen
  37. Where does photosynthesis occur?
    chloroplasts of cells
  38. Chloroplasts of photosynthesis is to _____ of cellular respiration
  39. light reactions of photosynthesis occur where?
    thylakoid membrane and Calvin-Benson cycle
  40. Calvin-Benson cycle
    occurs int he stroma of the chloroplast. Converts the light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH.

    Chemical energy is then used to convert carbon dioxide into food.

    **requires more ATP than NADPH**
  41. Describe the light reaction that takes palce in the thylakoid membrane
    chlorophyll absorbs light (form of photon). Photon is passed till it reaches chlorophyll (a) that is surrounded by a light harvesting complex.

    Two types of chlorophyll (a) : P680 produces oxide and hydrogen air while the other (P700) produces ATP.

    The energy produced by P700 cycle is used in Calvin-Benson cycle for energy(ATP and NADPH) to cervert carbon dioxide to food.
  42. Kinetic vs Potential energy
    • Kinetic energy is the energy of a movig object.
    • Potential energy is energy that can be.
  43. Potential energy in biology
    Bonds that hold molecules together
  44. 1st law of thermodynamics
    energy in the universe is neither created or distroyed
  45. Second Law of Thermodynamics
    when energy is transferred or transformed, some small amount is lost as unusable energy.
  46. 3 Function of membranes
    • Separate the cell from its environment
    • Devide the cell into different compartments
    • Control the passage of substances
  47. Structure of a membrane
    lipid bilayer - phospholipids have a hydrophilic polar group (water loving head) on the outside of the membrane and a hydrocarbon chain (water-fearing tail) on the membraine's center.

    Membrane proteins are dispersed throughout the lipid bilayer - transport molecules
  48. Why is membrane fluidity important
    it can change with temperature, electrical charges, and presence of various electrolytes
  49. Describe selectively permeable
    Some molecules can pass through easily (passive transport) and some cannot.
  50. Name two types of passive transport
    • Diffusion - particles spreading from areas of high concentration to low.
    • Osmosis - movement of water across a semipermeable membrane.
  51. hypotonic
    lower concentration of solute
  52. hypertonic
    greater concentration of solute
  53. isotonic
    same concentration of solute
  54. osmoregulation
    cell's process of balancing water concentrations
  55. Cell walls
    Maintaining isotonic condiditons. Plants, fungi, and bacteria
  56. prokaryotic cells
    No true nucleus and no membrane-bound organelles

    Bacteria and archaea

    smaller and thought to be more primative
  57. Prokaryotic cells contain:
    • cytoplasm bound by a plasma membrane
    • genetic material (DNA) - called nucleoid
    • Ribosomes
    • Can contain cell wall, pili, flagella, and outer capsule
  58. Eukaryotic Cells
    those that contain a membrane bound nucleus
  59. Difference between eukaryotic cells of plants and animals
    • Plants - chloroplasts, central vacuoles, and tonoplasts, cell walls and plasmodesmata
    • Animals-lysosomes, centrioles, flagella
  60. Nucleus - functions
    • Contain cell's DNA
    • Responsible for cellular reproducation
    • Responsible for DNA replication
    • Responsible for RNA synthesis
    • Responses to changes in the cell's environment
  61. Nucleus composition
    • chromatin - condensed material inside
    • nucleoli - specialized areas that produce ribosomal RNA and help assemble proteins
  62. Ribosomes function
    protein synthesis
  63. Ribosomes composition
    • small
    • not bound by membranes
    • contain small and large subunits
  64. free ribosomes protein
    generally remain in the cytoplasm
  65. bound ribosomes protein
    generally fuse with membranes of organelles
  66. can ribosomes be found in prokaryotic cells?
  67. ER functions
    Bilayer membrane that secretes enzymes and produces other bilayer membranes
  68. Two types of ER
    • Rough- studded with ribosomes and responsible for exporting the proteins
    • Smooth- synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, and detoxification of drugs and poisons
  69. What organ has an abundance of smooth ER and why
    Liver because of its ability to detoxify of drugs and poisons
  70. How is a protein shipped to another part of the cell?
    portion of the ER membrane pinches off creating a transport vesicle containing the protein
  71. Golgi Apparatus
    • extensive network of flattened membrane-bound besicles.
    • closely linked with the ER
  72. Golgi Apparatus contains ________ membrane.
  73. What does the cis and trans faces of a Golgi Apparatus do?
    • Cis - receives trasport vesibles from the rough ER
    • Trans - buds into a vesicle and transports the protein to its final destination
  74. What is the difference between a bud secretory vesicle or a transport vesicle of the Golgi aparatus?
    Secretory vesicles remove the protein completely from the cell by binding with the plasma membrane of the cell and releasing it to space

    A transport vesicle transports protein within the cell
  75. What do lysosomes carry?
    hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules into smaller compounds that the cell can use more readily
  76. edocytosis
    process of bring substances into the cell
  77. Where does the lysosome and the enyzyme it carries originate? Where is it modified at?
    originates in the ER and modified in the golgi apparatus
  78. Perioxisomes
    small sack like, single membrane organelle.
  79. Enzymes of perioxisomes create what?
    Hydrogen peroxide, which catabolize large molecules and toxins
  80. Perioxisomes also tranform hydrogen peroxide into?
  81. Vacuoles
    Large membranous sacs that store food, minerals, waste and other chemical products in plant cells
  82. Vacuoles are similar to?

    Both originate from the ER and carry out hydrolysis
  83. Vacuoles as hydrolysis
    contract and expel water out of the cell or expand and play a role in cellular elongation
  84. Mitochondria
    energy powerhouse of the cell

    in one cell the number of mitochondria varies from 1 to 1000
  85. Mitochondria is the site of many of the steps of __________.
    Cellular respiration
  86. Krebs cycle occurs within the _______ of the mitochondria
  87. Componenets of the electron transport chain are embedded in the ________ of the mitchondria.
    inner membrane
  88. Solar energy in converted into chemical energy by organelles found in plants called ____.
  89. Chloroplasts composition
    • chlorophyll and other molecules taht absorb the sunlight
    • two membranes
    • thylakoids - light rx occurs
    • stroma - Calvin-Benson cycle occurs here
  90. What is the support stucture of the cell?
  91. Cytoskeleton composition
    • criss-crossing fibers that maintain and change the cell's shape
    • microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments
  92. Microtubules
    • Hollow rods found mostly in the cytoplasm
    • Thickest of all fibers of cytoskeleton
  93. Centrosome or Centrioles
    • microtubule organizing center in the cell. Some cells contain two centrosomes (centrioles)
    • Play a role in the separation of chromosomes during cell division
  94. Microtubules composition
    composed of cilia and flagella
  95. cilia and flagella functions
    locomotion of cells
  96. Intermediate filaments
    • protein fibers that maintain the structural intergerty and shape of the cell as well as the arrangement of the organelles within the cell
    • more permanent
  97. Microfilaments
    • twisted double chain of protein called actin
    • help the cell change shape
    • form the cleavage furrow in cell division
  98. What type of filaments of a cell is responsible for contraction
  99. Integumentary system
  100. skin is divided into two sections
    • epidermis
    • dermis
  101. epidermis
    • thin outer layer composed of stratified squamous epithelial cells (keratinocytes)
    • 5 layers
    • no blood vessels or nerves
  102. List the 5 layers of the epidermis
    • Corn lovers grow several barrels
    • stratum corneum
    • stratum lucidum
    • stratum granulosum
    • stratum spinosum
    • stratum basale
  103. stratum corneum is composed of...
    flattened, dead cells, filled with keratin
  104. What toughens the skin, hair, and nails?
  105. Epidermis contain what two types of cells, other than its 5 layers?
    • melanocytes - responsible for brown pigmentation
    • Langerhans cells - specialized immune cells
  106. Deris Layer of skin
    composed of connective tissue (including collegen and elastic fibers), sparse cells, ang ground substance
  107. What are the cells found in the dermis and which one is the most abundent?
    • Fibroblasts - most abundent
    • masst cells
    • lymphocytes
    • macrophages
  108. The dermis contains what (aside from mast cells, etc)
    blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, free and specialized nerve endings including Pacinian and Meissner's corpuscles
  109. What is the level below the dermis and what is its function?
    Subcutaneous layer - filled with fatty deposits that help store heat as well as blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics