Nutrition Key Words Ch1

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  1. Kilocalorie (kcalories or kcal)
    the larger calories, 1000 cals or kcal, is used in the study of metabolism to avoid the use of very large numbers in calculations
  2. Nutrigenomics
    the study of the affects of nutrients and other bioactive substances found in food on genes, body protiens, and metabolites
  3. Nutrigenetics
    the study of the effect of an individual's particular genetic variations on metabolic and physiologic functions, including nutrient requirements, food digestion and absorption, or risk of certian diseases
  4. Nutrtion
    the sum of the processes involved in taking in food, releasing the nutrients it contains, and assimilating and useing this nutrients to provide energy and maintain body tissue
  5. Nutrition Science
    The body of scientific knowledge developed through controlled research that relates to all aspects of nutrition, national, international, community, and clinical
  6. Dietetics
    the science concerned with the nutritional planning and prep of foods and diets
  7. Registered Dietition (RD)
    A health professional who has completed an accredited acedemic program and a min of 900 hours of postbaccalaureate supervised practice and has passed the National Registration Exam for Dietitians administered by the Commission on Dietetics Registration of the American Dietetics Association
  8. Public Health Nutritionalist
    A health professional who has completed and acedemic program in nutrition and a graduate degree (MPH or DrPH) in a school of public health accredited by the American Association of Public Health: he or she supervises the nutrition component of public health programs in county, state,national, or international community settings
  9. Nutrients
    Substances in food that are essential for energy, growth, normal body function, and maintanance of life.
  10. Macronutrients
    the 3 energy yeilding nutrients, carbs fat and protiens
  11. Micronutrients
    the 2 classes of non energy yeilding elements and compounds- the minerals and vitamins. Minerals and vitamins are essential for regulation and control of cell metabolism and building body structures
  12. Metabolism
    the sum of all various biochemical and physiological processes by which the body grows and maintains itself (anabolism), breaks down and reshapes tissue(catabolism), and transforms energy to do its work. Products of these various reactions are called metabolites
  13. Amino Acid
    an acid containing the essential element nitrogen in the chemical group NH2. amino acids are the structural units of protien and the building blocks of body tissue
  14. Synthesize
    the action of forming new compounds in the body for use in building tissues or carrying out metabolic or physiologic functions
  15. Metabolites
    Any substance produced by metabolism or by a metabolic process
  16. Anthropemetric
    measurement of the human body to determin height, weight, skinfold thickness, or other dimensions that can estimate the relative proportions of body fat and body muscle; such measurements are used to evaluate health status and chronic disease risk.
  17. Anemia
    a condition of abnormally low blood hemoglobin level caused by too few red blood cells or red blood cells with low hemoglobin content
  18. Dietary Referance Intakes (DRIs)
    the framework of nutrient standard now in place in the United States that provide referance values for use in planning and evaluation diets for healthy people. The DRIs include the Recommended Dietary Allowance, the Adaquate Intake, the Tolerance Upper Intake Level, and the Estimated Average Allowance
  19. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
    the average daily intake a nutrient that will meet the requirement of all (97%-98%) healthy people of a given age and gender. RDAs were established and reviewed periodically by an expert panel of nutrition scientists and based on new research findings are amended as needed. When plannign diets, aiming for this level of intake is best
  20. Adequate Intake (AI)
    a suggested daily intake of a nutrient that to meet body needs and support health that is used when available research is insufficient to develop a RDA. the AI serves as a guide for intake when planning a diet
  21. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
    the highest amount of a nutrition that can be consumed safely with no risk of toxicity or adverse effect on health. The UL is used to evaluate dietary supplements or review total nutrient intake from food and supplements. Intakes exceeding the UL usually result fro concentrated supplements, not food
  22. Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
    the average daily intake of a nutrient that will meet the requirement with 50% of healthy people of a given age and gender. The EAR is used to plan and evaluate the nutrient intakes of groups rather than individuals
  23. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
    the suggested proportional distribution of kcals across the macronutrients; carbs should provide 45% to 65% of total kcals, fat should provide 20% to 35% of total kcals, and protien should provide 10% to 30% of total kcals.
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Nutrition Key Words Ch1
Ch 1 vocab
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