F & E

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  1. Hyponatremia
    Muscle weakness, muscle twitching,decreased skin tugor, headache, tremor, seizures, coma.
  2. Hypernatremia
    Thirst, fever, flushed skin, oliguria, disorientation, dry, sticky membranes
  3. Hypokalemia
    Decreased GI, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle function, decreased reflexes, rapid, weak, irregular pulse, muscle irritability, fatigue, decreased BP, decreased bowel motility, paralytic ileus
  4. Hyperkalemia
    muscle weakness, nausea, diarrhea, oliguria, paresthesia (altered sensation) of the face, tongue, hands, and feet.
  5. Hypocalcemia
    Muscle tremor, muscle cramps, tetany, tonis-clonic seizures, paresthesia, bleeding, arrhythmias, hypotension, numbness or tingling in fingers, toes, and area surrounding the mouth
  6. Hypercalcemia
    Lethargy, headache, muscle flacidity, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, constipation, hypertension, polyuria.
  7. Hypochloremia
    Increased muscle excitability, tetany, decreased respirations
  8. Hyperchloremia
    Stupor, rapid, deep breathing, muscle weakness
  9. Hypophosphatemia
    Paresthesia (circumoral and peripheral), lethargy, speech defects (such as stuttering or stammering), muscle pain and tenderness
  10. Hyperphosphatemia
    Renal failure, vague neuroexcitibility to tetany and seizures, arrhythmias and muscle twitching with sudden rise in phosphate level
  11. Hypomagnesemia
    Dizziness, confusion, seizures, tremor, leg and foot cramps, hyperirritability, arrhythmias, vasomotor changes, anorexia, nausea
  12. Hypermagnesemia
    Drowsiness, lethargy, coma, arrhythmias, hypotension, vague neuromuscular changes (such as tremor), vague GI symptoms (such as nausea), peripheral vasodilation, facial flushing, sense of warmth, slow, weak pulse
  13. Diffusion
    decends (high to low)
  14. Active transport
    Ascends (Low to high)
  15. Isotonic
    • Stays where its infused
    • Normal saline
    • Lactated Ringers
    • D5W
  16. Hypertonic
    • Higher than serum osmolarity
    • Initially increases osmolarity causing fluid to be pulled from the interstitial and intracellular compartments into the blood vessels.
    • It reduces rick of edema, stabalizes BP, regulates urine output
    • D5 in half NS
    • D5NS
    • D5 in LR
  17. Hypotonic
    • Lower than serum osmolarity
    • Fluid shifts out of the blood vessels and into the cells and interstitial spaces
    • Hydrates celss while reducung fluid in the circulatory system
    • Used when diuretic therapy dehydrates cells, diabetic ketoacidosis, and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome.
    • Half NS
    • 0.33% NaCl
    • Dextrose 2.5% in H2O
    • Dextrose 2.5%
    • NEVER FOR Pts with Cerebral edema, increased ICP
Card Set:
F & E
2012-01-06 23:07:14


Level III
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