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Muscle weakness, muscle twitching,decreased skin tugor, headache, tremor, seizures, coma.
Thirst, fever, flushed skin, oliguria, disorientation, dry, sticky membranes
Decreased GI, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle function, decreased reflexes, rapid, weak, irregular pulse, muscle irritability, fatigue, decreased BP, decreased bowel motility, paralytic ileus
muscle weakness, nausea, diarrhea, oliguria, paresthesia (altered sensation) of the face, tongue, hands, and feet.
Muscle tremor, muscle cramps, tetany, tonis-clonic seizures, paresthesia, bleeding, arrhythmias, hypotension, numbness or tingling in fingers, toes, and area surrounding the mouth
Lethargy, headache, muscle flacidity, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, constipation, hypertension, polyuria.
Increased muscle excitability, tetany, decreased respirations
Stupor, rapid, deep breathing, muscle weakness
Paresthesia (circumoral and peripheral), lethargy, speech defects (such as stuttering or stammering), muscle pain and tenderness
Renal failure, vague neuroexcitibility to tetany and seizures, arrhythmias and muscle twitching with sudden rise in phosphate level
Dizziness, confusion, seizures, tremor, leg and foot cramps, hyperirritability, arrhythmias, vasomotor changes, anorexia, nausea
Drowsiness, lethargy, coma, arrhythmias, hypotension, vague neuromuscular changes (such as tremor), vague GI symptoms (such as nausea), peripheral vasodilation, facial flushing, sense of warmth, slow, weak pulse
decends (high to low)
Ascends (Low to high)
- Stays where its infused
- Normal saline
- Lactated Ringers
- Higher than serum osmolarity
- Initially increases osmolarity causing fluid to be pulled from the interstitial and intracellular compartments into the blood vessels.
- It reduces rick of edema, stabalizes BP, regulates urine output
- D5 in half NS
- D5 in LR
- Lower than serum osmolarity
- Fluid shifts out of the blood vessels and into the cells and interstitial spaces
- Hydrates celss while reducung fluid in the circulatory system
- Used when diuretic therapy dehydrates cells, diabetic ketoacidosis, and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome.
- Half NS
- 0.33% NaCl
- Dextrose 2.5% in H2O
- Dextrose 2.5%
- NEVER FOR Pts with Cerebral edema, increased ICP