Medical Terminology Ch 12

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Medical Terminology Ch 12
2012-01-07 14:40:02

Language of Medicine Chapter 12 Respiratory System
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  1. adenoids
    Lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx; pharyngeal tonsils.
  2. alveolus (plural: alveoli)
    Air sac in the lung.
  3. apex of the lung
    Tip or uppermost portion of the lung. An apex is the tip of a structure. Apical means pertaining to (at) the apex.
  4. base of the lung
    Lower portion of the lung; from the Greek basis, foundation. Basilar means pertaining to the base.
  5. bronchioles
    Smallest branches of the bronchi. Terminal bronchioles lead to alveolar ducts.
  6. bronchus (plural: bronchi)
    Branch of the trachea (windpipe) that is a passageway into the lung; bronchial tube.
  7. carbon dioxide (CO2)
    Gas produced by body cells when oxygen and food combine; exhaled through the lungs.
  8. cilia
    Thin hairs attached to the mucous membrane epithelium lining the respiratory tract. They clear bacteria and foreign substances from the lung. Cigarette smoke impairs the function of cilia.
  9. diaphragm
    Muscle separating the chest and abdomen. It contracts and relaxes to make breathing possible.
  10. epiglottis
    Lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx, preventing food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing.
  11. expiration
    Breathing out (exhalation).
  12. glottis
    Slit-like opening to the larynx.
  13. hilum (of lung)
    Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs. Hilar means pertaining to (at) the hilum.
  14. inspiration
    Breathing in (inhalation).
  15. larynx
    Voice box; containing the vocal chords.
  16. lobe
    Division of a lung.
  17. mediastinum
    Regional between the lungs in the chest cavity. It contains the trachea, heart, aorta, esophagus, and bronchial tubes.
  18. nares
    Openings through the nose carrying air into the nasal cavities.
  19. oxygen (O2)
    Gas that passes into the bloodstream at the lungs and travels to all body cells.
  20. palatine tonsil
    One of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx (palatine means pertaining to the roof of the mouth).
  21. paranasal sinus
    One of the air cavities in the bones near the nose.
  22. parietal pleura
    Outer fold of pleura lying closer to the ribs and chest wall.
  23. pharynx
    Throat; including the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
  24. pleura
    Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung.
  25. pleural cavity
    Space between the folds of the pleura.
  26. pulmonary parenchyma
    Essential parts of the lung, responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli.
  27. respiration
    Process of moving air into and out of the lungs; breathing.
  28. trachea
  29. visceral pleura
    Inner fold of pleura lying closer to the lung tissue.
  30. adenoid/o
  31. alveol/o
    alveolus, air sac
  32. bronch/o
    • bronchial tube,
    • bronchus
  33. bronchiol/o
    bronchiole, small bronchus
  34. capn/o
    carbon dioxide
  35. coni/o
  36. cyan/o
  37. epiglott/o
  38. laryng/o
    larynx, voice box
  39. lob/o
    lobe of the lung
  40. mediastin/o
  41. nas/o
  42. orth/o
    straight, upright
  43. ox/o
  44. pector/o
  45. pharyng/o
    pharynx, throat
  46. phon/o
  47. phren/o
  48. pleur/o
  49. pneum/o,
    air, lung
  50. pulmon/o
  51. rhin/o
  52. sinus/o
    sinus, cavity
  53. spir/o
  54. tel/o
  55. thorac/o
  56. tonsill/o
  57. trache/o
    trachea, windpipe
  58. -ema
  59. -osmia
  60. -pnea
  61. -ptysis
  62. -sphyxia
  63. -thorax
    • pleural cavity,
    • chest
  64. auscultation
    Listening to sounds within the body.
  65. percussion
    Tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of the underlying structure.
  66. pleural rub
    Scratchy sound produced by pleural surfaces rubbing against each other. Also called a friction rub)
  67. rales (crackles)
    Fine crackling sounds heard on auscultation (during inhalation) when there is fluid in the alveoli.
  68. rhonchi (singular: rhonchus)
    Loud rumbling sounds heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum.
  69. sputum
    Material expelled from the bronchi, lungs, or upper respiratory tract by spitting.
  70. stridor
    Strained, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by obstruction in the pharynx or larynx.
  71. wheezes
    Continuous high-pitched whistling sounds produced during breathing.
  72. croup
    • Acute viral infection of infants and children with obstruction of the larynx, barking cough, and stridor.
    • The most common causative agents are influenza viruses or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
  73. diphtheria
    Acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract cdaused by the diphtheria bacterium (Corynebacterium).
  74. epistaxis
  75. pertussis
    Whopping cough; highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by Bordetella pertussis).
  76. paroxysmal
    violent, sudden
  77. asthma
    Chronic bronchial inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction due to bronchial edema and constriction and increased mucus production.
  78. bronchiectasis
    Chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection.
  79. chronic bronchitis
    Inflammation of bronchi persisting over a long time; type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  80. cystic fibrosis (CF)
    Inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick mucous secretions in the respiratory tract that do not drain normally.
  81. atelectasis
    Collapsed lung; incomplete expansion of alveoli.
  82. emphysema
    Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls.
  83. lung cancer
    • Malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchi.
    • Lung cancers are divided into two general categories, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
  84. pneumoconiosis
    • Abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis.
    • Various forms are named according to the type of dust particle inhaled: anthracosis (coal (anthrac/o) dust (black lung disease)), asbestosis (asbestos (asbest/o) particles (in shipbuilding and construction trades)), silicosis (silica (silic/o = rocks) or glass (grinder's disease))
  85. pneumonia
    Acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction.
  86. pulmonary access
    Large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs.
  87. pulmonary edema
    Fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles.
  88. pulmonary embolism (PE)
    Clot or other material lodges in vessels of the lung.
  89. pulmonary fibrosis
    Formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs.
  90. sarcoidosis
    Chronic inflammatory disease in which small nodules (granulomas) develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs.
  91. tuberculosis (TB)
    Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; lungs usually are involved, but any organ in the body may be affected.
  92. bacilli (singular: bacillus)
    Rod-shaped bacteria
  93. mesothelioma
    Rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura.
  94. pleural effusion
    Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (cavity).
  95. pleurisy (pleuritis)
    Inflammation of the pleura.
  96. pneumothorax
    Collection of air in the pleural space.
  97. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    Chronic condition of persistent obstruction of air flow through bronchial tubes and lungs.
  98. cor pulmonale
    Failure of the right side of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the lungs because of underlying lung disease.
  99. exudate
    Fluid, cells, and other substances (pus) that filter from cells or capillaries ooze into lesions or areas of inflammation.
  100. hydrothorax
    Collection of fluid in the pleural cavity.
  101. infiltrate
    Collection of fluid or other material within the lung, as seen on a chest film, CT scan, or other radiologic image.
  102. palliative
    Relieving symptoms, but not curing the disease.
  103. paroxysmal
    Pertaining to a sudden occurrence, such as a spasm or seizure; oxysm/o means sudden.
  104. pulmonary infarction
    Area of necrosis (death of lung tissue).
  105. purulent
    Containing pus.
  106. chest x-ray (CXR)
    Radiographic image of the thoracic cavity (chest film).
  107. computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest
    Computer-generated series of x-ray images show thoracic structures in cross section and other planes.
  108. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA)
    Combination of CT scanning and angiography.
  109. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest
    Magnetic waves create detailed images of the chest in frontal, lateral, and cross-sectional (axial) planes.
  110. positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung
    Radioactive glucose is injected and images reveal metabolic activity in the lungs.
  111. ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan
    Detection device records radioactivity in the lung after injection of a radioisotope or inhalation of small amount of radioactive gas (xenon). Q is the symbol for blood volume or rate of blood flow.
  112. bronchoscopy
    Fiberoptic endoscope examination of the bronchial tubes.
  113. endotracheal intubation
    Placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, and trachea to establish an airway.
  114. laryngoscopy
    Visual examination of the voice box.
  115. lung biopsy
    Removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination.
  116. mediastinoscopy
    Endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum.
  117. pulmonary function tests (PFTs)
    Tests that measure the ventilation mechanics of the lungs (airway function, lung volume, and capacity of the lungs to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide efficiently).
  118. obstructive lung disease
    Airways are narrowed, which results in resistance to air flow during breathing.
  119. restrictive lung disease
    Expansion of the lung is limited by disease that affects the chest wall, pleura, or lung tissue itself.
  120. thoracentesis
    Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space.
  121. thoracotomy
    Large surgical incision of the chest.
  122. thoracoscopy (thorascopy)
    Visual examination of the chest via small incisions and use of an endoscope.
  123. tracheostomy
    Surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck.
  124. tuberculin test
    Determines past or present tuberculosis infection based on a positive skin reaction. Examples are the Heaf test and the tine test, using purified protein derivative (PPD) applied with multiple punctures of the skin, and the Mantoux test, using PPD given by intradermal injection.
  125. tube thoracostomy
    Chest tube is passed through an opening in the chest to continuously drain a pleural effusion.