Language of Medicine Chapter 12 Respiratory System
Lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx; pharyngeal tonsils.
alveolus (plural: alveoli)
Air sac in the lung.
apex of the lung
Tip or uppermost portion of the lung. An apex is the tip of a structure. Apical means pertaining to (at) the apex.
base of the lung
Lower portion of the lung; from the Greek basis, foundation. Basilar means pertaining to the base.
Smallest branches of the bronchi. Terminal bronchioles lead to alveolar ducts.
bronchus (plural: bronchi)
Branch of the trachea (windpipe) that is a passageway into the lung; bronchial tube.
carbon dioxide (CO2)
Gas produced by body cells when oxygen and food combine; exhaled through the lungs.
Thin hairs attached to the mucous membrane epithelium lining the respiratory tract. They clear bacteria and foreign substances from the lung. Cigarette smoke impairs the function of cilia.
Muscle separating the chest and abdomen. It contracts and relaxes to make breathing possible.
Lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx, preventing food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing.
Breathing out (exhalation).
Slit-like opening to the larynx.
hilum (of lung)
Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs. Hilar means pertaining to (at) the hilum.
Breathing in (inhalation).
Voice box; containing the vocal chords.
Division of a lung.
Regional between the lungs in the chest cavity. It contains the trachea, heart, aorta, esophagus, and bronchial tubes.
Openings through the nose carrying air into the nasal cavities.
Gas that passes into the bloodstream at the lungs and travels to all body cells.
One of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx (palatine means pertaining to the roof of the mouth).
One of the air cavities in the bones near the nose.
Outer fold of pleura lying closer to the ribs and chest wall.
Throat; including the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung.
Space between the folds of the pleura.
Essential parts of the lung, responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli.
Process of moving air into and out of the lungs; breathing.
Inner fold of pleura lying closer to the lung tissue.
alveolus, air sac
bronchiole, small bronchus
larynx, voice box
lobe of the lung
Listening to sounds within the body.
Tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of the underlying structure.
Scratchy sound produced by pleural surfaces rubbing against each other. Also called a friction rub)
Fine crackling sounds heard on auscultation (during inhalation) when there is fluid in the alveoli.
rhonchi (singular: rhonchus)
Loud rumbling sounds heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum.
Material expelled from the bronchi, lungs, or upper respiratory tract by spitting.
Strained, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by obstruction in the pharynx or larynx.
Continuous high-pitched whistling sounds produced during breathing.
Acute viral infection of infants and children with obstruction of the larynx, barking cough, and stridor.
The most common causative agents are influenza viruses or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
Acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract cdaused by the diphtheria bacterium (Corynebacterium).
Whopping cough; highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by Bordetella pertussis).
Chronic bronchial inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction due to bronchial edema and constriction and increased mucus production.
Chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection.
Inflammation of bronchi persisting over a long time; type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
cystic fibrosis (CF)
Inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick mucous secretions in the respiratory tract that do not drain normally.
Collapsed lung; incomplete expansion of alveoli.
Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls.
Malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchi.
Lung cancers are divided into two general categories, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
Abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis.
Various forms are named according to the type of dust particle inhaled: anthracosis (coal (anthrac/o) dust (black lung disease)), asbestosis (asbestos (asbest/o) particles (in shipbuilding and construction trades)), silicosis (silica (silic/o = rocks) or glass (grinder's disease))
Acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction.
Large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs.
Fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles.
pulmonary embolism (PE)
Clot or other material lodges in vessels of the lung.
Formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs.
Chronic inflammatory disease in which small nodules (granulomas) develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs.
Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; lungs usually are involved, but any organ in the body may be affected.
bacilli (singular: bacillus)
Rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura.
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (cavity).
Inflammation of the pleura.
Collection of air in the pleural space.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Chronic condition of persistent obstruction of air flow through bronchial tubes and lungs.
Failure of the right side of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the lungs because of underlying lung disease.
Fluid, cells, and other substances (pus) that filter from cells or capillaries ooze into lesions or areas of inflammation.
Collection of fluid in the pleural cavity.
Collection of fluid or other material within the lung, as seen on a chest film, CT scan, or other radiologic image.
Relieving symptoms, but not curing the disease.
Pertaining to a sudden occurrence, such as a spasm or seizure; oxysm/o means sudden.
Area of necrosis (death of lung tissue).
chest x-ray (CXR)
Radiographic image of the thoracic cavity (chest film).
computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest
Computer-generated series of x-ray images show thoracic structures in cross section and other planes.
CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA)
Combination of CT scanning and angiography.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest
Magnetic waves create detailed images of the chest in frontal, lateral, and cross-sectional (axial) planes.
positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung
Radioactive glucose is injected and images reveal metabolic activity in the lungs.
ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan
Detection device records radioactivity in the lung after injection of a radioisotope or inhalation of small amount of radioactive gas (xenon). Q is the symbol for blood volume or rate of blood flow.
Fiberoptic endoscope examination of the bronchial tubes.
Placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, and trachea to establish an airway.
Visual examination of the voice box.
Removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination.
Endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum.
pulmonary function tests (PFTs)
Tests that measure the ventilation mechanics of the lungs (airway function, lung volume, and capacity of the lungs to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide efficiently).
obstructive lung disease
Airways are narrowed, which results in resistance to air flow during breathing.
restrictive lung disease
Expansion of the lung is limited by disease that affects the chest wall, pleura, or lung tissue itself.
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space.
Large surgical incision of the chest.
Visual examination of the chest via small incisions and use of an endoscope.
Surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck.
Determines past or present tuberculosis infection based on a positive skin reaction. Examples are the Heaf test and the tine test, using purified protein derivative (PPD) applied with multiple punctures of the skin, and the Mantoux test, using PPD given by intradermal injection.
Chest tube is passed through an opening in the chest to continuously drain a pleural effusion.