Medical Terminology Ch 13

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Medical Terminology Ch 13
2012-01-07 16:42:33
Blood System

Language of Medicine Chapter 13 Blood System
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  1. albumin
    Protein in blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood.
  2. antibody (Ab)
    Protein (immunoglobulin) produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigens. An antibody is specific to an antigen and inactivates it.
  3. antigen
    Substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of an antibody.
  4. basophil
    White blood cell containing granules that stain blue; associated with release of histamine and heparin.
  5. bilirubin
    Orange-yellow pigment in bile; formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die.
  6. coagulation
    Blood clotting.
  7. colony-stimulating factor (CSF)
    Protein that stimulates the growth and proliferation of white blood cells (granulocytes).
  8. differentiation
    Change in structure and function of a cell as it matures; specialization.
  9. electrophoresis
    Method of separating serum proteins by electrical charge.
  10. eosinophil
    White blood cell containing granules that stain red; associated with allergic reactions.
  11. erythrocyte
    Red blood cell. There are about 5 million per microliter (mL) or cubic millimeter (mm3) of blood.
  12. erythropoietin (EPO)
    Hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell formation.
  13. fibrin
    Protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot.
  14. fibrinogen
    Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process.
  15. globulin
    Plasma protein; alpha, beta, and gamma (immune) globulins are examples.
  16. granulocyte
    White blood cell with numerous dark-staining granules: eosinophil, neutrophil, and basophil.
  17. hemoglobin
    Blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in red blood cells.
  18. hemolysis
    Destruction or breakdown of blood (red blood cells).
  19. heparin
    Anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells.
  20. immune reaction
    Response of the immune system to foreign invasion.
  21. imunoglobulin
    Protein (globulin) with antibody activity; examples are IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD. Immun/o means protection.
  22. leukocyte
    White blood cell.
  23. lymphocyte
    Mononuclear leukocyte that produces antibodies.
  24. macrophage
    Monocyte that migrates from the blood to tissue spaces. As a phagocyte, it engulfs foreign material and debris.
  25. megakaryocyte
    Large platelet precursor cell found in the bone marrow.
  26. monocyte
    Leukocyte with one large nucleus. It is a cell that engulfs foreign material and debris. Monocytes become macrophages as they leave the blood and enter body tissues.
  27. mononuclear
    Pertaining to a cell (leukocyte) with a single round nucleus; lymphocytes and monocytes are mononuclear leukocytes.
  28. neutrophil
    Granulocytic leukocyte formed in bone marrow. It is a phagocytic tissue-fighting cell. Also called a polymorphonuclear leukocyte.
  29. plasma
    Liquid portion of blood; contains water, proteins, salts, nutrients, hormones, and vitamins.
  30. plasmapheresis
    Removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge. Collected cells are retransfused back into the donor. Fresh-frozen plasma or salt solution is used to replace withdrawn plasma.
  31. platelet
    Small blood fragment that collects at sites of injury to begin the clotting process.
  32. prothrombin
    Plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process.
  33. reticulocyte
    Immature erythrocyte. A network of strands (reticulin) is seen after staining the cell with special dyes.
  34. Rh factor
    Antigen on red blood cells of Rh-positive (RH+) individuals. The factor was first identified in the blood of a rhesus monkey.
  35. serum
    Plasma minus clotting proteins and cells. Clear, yellowish fluid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot. It is formed from plasma, but does not contain protein-coagulation factors.
  36. stem cell
    Unspecialized cell that gives rise to mature, specialized forms. A hemotopoietic stem cell is the progenitor for all different types of blood cells.
  37. thrombin
    Enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation.
  38. thrombocyte
  39. bas/o
    base (alkaline, the opposite of acid)
  40. chrom/o
  41. coagul/o
  42. cyt/o
  43. eosin/o
    red, dawn, rosy
  44. erythr/o
  45. -blast
    immature cell, embryonic
  46. granul/o
  47. hem/o
  48. hemat/o
  49. hemoglobin/o
  50. is/o
    same, equal
  51. kary/o
  52. leuk/o
  53. mon/o
    one, single
  54. morph/o
    shape, form
  55. myel/o
    bone marrow
  56. neutr/o
    neutral (neither base nor acid)
  57. nucl/o
  58. phag/o
    eat, swallow
  59. poikil/o
    varied, irregular
  60. sider/o
  61. spher/o
    globe, round
  62. thromb/o
  63. -apheresis
    removal, a carrying away
  64. -cytosis
    abnormal condition of cells (increase in cells)
  65. -emia
    blood condition
  66. -globin
  67. -lytic
    pertaining to destruction
  68. -oid
    derived from
  69. -osis
    abnormal condition
  70. -penia
  71. -phage
    eat, swallow
  72. -philia
    attraction for (an increase in cell numbers)
  73. -phoresis
    carrying, transmission
  74. -poiesis
  75. -stasis
    stop, control
  76. Anisocytosis
    Cells are unequal in size
  77. Hypochromia
    Cells have reduced color (less hemoglobin)
  78. Macrocytosis
    Cells are large
  79. Microcytosis
    Cells are small
  80. Poikilocytosis
    Cells are irregularly shaped
  81. Spherocytosis
    Cells are rounded
  82. dyscrasia
  83. anemia
    Deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin.
  84. aplastic anemia
    Failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow.
  85. hemolytic anemia
    Reduction in red cells due to excessive destruction.
  86. pernicious anemia
    Lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body.
  87. sickle cell anemia
    Hereditary condition characterized by abnormal sickle shape of erythrocytes and by hemolysis.
  88. thalassemia
    Inherited defect in the ability to produce hemoglobin, usually seen in persons of Mediterranean background.
  89. hemochromatosis
    Excess iron deposits throughout the body.
  90. polycythemia vera
    General increase in red blood cells (erythremia).
  91. hemophilia
    Excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of blood clotting factors (factor VIII or IX) necessary for blood clotting.
  92. purpura
    Multiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin.
  93. petechiae
    Tiny purple or red flat spots appearing on the skin as a result of hemorrhages.
  94. ecchymoses
    Larger blue or purplish patches on the skin (bruises).
  95. autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura
    Condition in which a patient makes an antibody that destroys platelets.