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  1. Absolute Value
    The distance between a number and zero on the number line.
  2. Acid
    Any compound with a hydrogen ion activity greater than water. (pH<7)
  3. Acidic Solutions
    Solutions that have a pH scale value less than 7.
  4. Activation Energy
    Energy necessary for a chemical reaction to occur.
  5. Active Verb
    A verb that shows an action preformed by the subject of the sentence.
  6. Active Voice
    State of a sentence that contains an active verb.
  7. Adaption
    The increase from generation to generation of alleles of genes that allows a species to survive in their environment.
  8. Addition Principle
    The rule that makes it possible to move terms from one side of an equation to another by adding opposites to each expression.
  9. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
    Cellular fluid produced in the mitochondria.
  10. Adjective
    Descriptive word that modifies nouns or pronouns.
  11. Adverb
    A word modifying a verb, adjective, or another adverb indicating when, how, where, why, or how much.
  12. Alkane
    Hydrocarbon with only single bonds.
  13. Alkene
    Hydrocarbon with one double bond.
  14. Alkyne
    Hydrocarbon with one triple bond.
  15. Alleles
    Two or more different form of a certain gene.
  16. Alveoli
    Structure in the lungs that permits the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to occur.
  17. Amino Acid
    The building blocks of proteins.
  18. Anatomical Position
    A standard position in which the body is facing forward, the feet are parallel to each other, and the arms are at the sides with the palms facing forward.
  19. Anatomy
    The study of the structure of various organs and body systems.
  20. Anion
    An atom or molecule with a negative charge.
  21. Antecedent
    A noun that a pronoun refers back to or replaces.
  22. Anterior
    • Toward the front of the body or body structure.
    • Opposite of posterior.
  23. Anitbody
    A protein produced by a B cell in response to an antigen.
  24. Antigen
    A foreign protein, such as pathogen, that stimulates antibody production.
  25. Apostrophe
    A punctuation mark (') used to indicate possessiveness or the omission of letters or numbers.
  26. Arabic Numerals
    • Written numbers that use a combination of the whole numbers.
    • 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9.
  27. Arteries
    Blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart to the capillaries.
  28. Article
    A word that is used to limit a noun, either definite (-a, an-) or definite (-the).
  29. Atom
    The smallest part of an element that still retains all the original properties of the element.
  30. Atomic Mass
    • The number of protons and neutrons within the nucleus of an atom.
    • The average mass of all of the know isotopes of an element.
  31. Atomic Number
    • The number of protons in the nucleus of the chemical element.
    • The number or protons that defines a specific atom.
  32. Attributive Tag
    A part of a sentence that indicates who said a direct quote.
  33. Audience
    Person or persons who will be reading a piece of writing.
  34. Author's Intent
    The underlying reason why the author wrote the text.
  35. Autonomic Nervous System
    The branch of the peripheral nervous system that controls automatic body functions like heartbeat and digestion.
  36. Autotroph
    An organism that is able to produce its own food.
  37. Axon
    A part of the nerve cell that carries impulses away from the cell body and connects one neuron with another neuron over a synapse.
  38. B Cell
    • A type of lymphocyte that produces antibodies in response to antigens.
    • Responsible for humeral immunity.
  39. Bar Graph
    • A graph used to compare the frequency of an event.
    • Frequencies are displayed as vertical or horizontal.
    • Nontouching bars.
    • Data is usually noncontinuous.
  40. Base
    Any compound with a hydrogen ion activity less than water. (pH>7)
  41. Basic Solutions
    Solutions that have a pH scale value greater than 7.
  42. Biases
    Opinions or beliefs that affect a person's ability to make fair, unclouded judgments or decisions.
  43. Binomial
    Polynomial that has two terms.
  44. Binomial Nomenclature
    • A two-word naming system that includes the universally accepted genus and species of each organism.
    • Developed by Carolus Linnaeus.
  45. Bronchial Tubes
    Small respiratory passages that connect the trachea to the lungs.
  46. Capillaries
    Tiny blood vessels that transport blood between arteries and veins within the body.
  47. Catalyst
    Substance that controls the rate of a chemical reaction.
  48. Cation
    An atom or molecule with a positive charge.
  49. Cause-Effect Text Structure
    First presents an action, and then describes the effects that result, or may result, from that action.
  50. Cell
    The basic unit of all life.
  51. Cell Wall
    The outside, rigid layer that helps separate the inside and outside of both prokaryotic and plant cells.
  52. Cellular Respiration
    The process in which glucose is used to produce adenosine triphosphate.
  53. Celsius
    A metric temperature scale defined (at standard pressure) by the melting point of ice (0 degrees C) and the boiling point (100 degrees C) of liquid water.
  54. Central Nervous System
    The branch of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord.
  55. Centrosome
    Microtubule organizing center that helps form and organize the mitotic spindle during mitosis.
  56. Charge
    A positive of negative distribution within an object.
  57. Charles Darwin
    Evolutionary biologist who studied wild life on the Galapagos Islands in the 1800's and wrote "On the Origin of Species" in which he explained adaption and natural selection.
  58. Chemical Bonding
    Chemical attraction of atoms due to their electron arrangement.
  59. Chemical Reaction
    • A dynamic event that alters the chemical makeup of a molecule.
    • A process that chemically transform a set of substances into another set.
  60. Chemotaxis
    The release of chemicals by damaged cells that attract white blood cells.
  61. Chlorophyll
    Green pigment in plants.
  62. Chloroplast
    • An organelle that contains chlorophyll and is found in plants.
    • Used to carry out photosynthesis.
  63. Chromatid
    • One of a pair of newly duplicated chromosomes that are still attached to one another.
    • A pair containing hundreds of genes.
  64. Chyme
    A mixture of food, chemicals, and enzymes in the stomach.
  65. Cilia
    Tiny hairs in the bronchial tubes that keep that airway clear by removing unwanted matter from the lungs.
  66. Circle Graph
    • Divided into sectors representing the frequency of an event.
    • Sectors total 100%.
  67. Circulatory System
    • Transportation highway for the entire body.
    • Also known as the cardiovascular system.
  68. Clause
    Group of words that are related and contained both a subject and a properly conjugated verb.
  69. Codon
    A group of three nucleotides on RNA or DNA that encodes for a single, specific amino acid.
  70. Coefficient
    Numerical part of a term.
  71. Colon
    A punctuation mark (:) used to indicate that there is information to follow.
  72. Comma
    A punctuation mark (,) used to indicate a break or pause within a sentence.
  73. Comparison-Contrast Text Structure
    Presents two different cases, usually with the intent of making the reader consider the differences (or similarities) between the two cases.
  74. Compass-Rose
    A symbol that indicates the cardinal directions (north, south, east, and west) as they relate to the map.
  75. Complex Sentence
    A sentence that contains an independent clause and a dependent clause.
  76. Compound Sentence
    Two or more independent clauses joined together with a coordinating conjunction.
  77. Connective Tissue
    • Connects different structures of the body.
    • Includes bones, cartilage, adipose tissues (fats), and blood vessels.
  78. Constant
    • Quantity that does not change.
    • It's what students refer to as "numbers"such as 8, -3, 1/2, 1/4, .45, etc.
  79. Context
    Text surrounding a word, phrase, or passage.
  80. Context Clues
    Words surroundings an unfamiliar word that can help a reader discern the meaning of the unfamiliar word.
  81. Coordinating Conjunctions
    • Words that join two or more words, phrases, or clauses so that each conjoined element is equal.
    • In English, there are only seven, and they may be remembered using the acronym FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so).
  82. Covalent
    The sharing of electrons between atoms.
  83. Cristae
    Series of folds formed by the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.
  84. Critical Reading
    The reading style where the reader carefully analyzes the text, judging its credibility and the author's intentions, rather than simply accepting the material as fact.
  85. Crude Birth Rate
    The number of childbirths per 1,000 people per year.
  86. Crude Death Rate
    The number of deaths per year 1,000 people per year.
  87. Crystalline Order
    Atoms arranged in a highly ordered state.
  88. Cumulative Sentence
    • Contains an independent clause followed by a parallel string of modifiers.
    • Modifiers may be adjectives, prepositional phrases, or dependent clauses.
  89. Cytokines
    Chemical messengers that are released by damaged tissues.
  90. Cytokinesis
    • The division and separation of the cytoplasm from one cell into two new cells.
    • Its accomplished by pinching off of the cell membrane to form two cells while simultaneously synthesizing and additional membrane to help in the process.
    • Begins in the late anaphase and completes in telophase.
  91. Cytoplasm
    Rich protein fluid with gel-like consistency that houses organelles.
  92. Deductions
    • Items that are subtracted from a beginning salary.
    • State taxes, federal taxes, health insurance, and retirement contributions).
  93. Deductive Reasoning
    A method whereby conclusions follow from a general principle.
  94. Deep
    • Away from or below the body surface.
    • Opposite from superficial.
  95. Degree
    An exponent or sum or exponents of the variable of a term.
  96. Dendrites
    Branched extensions of the neuron that receive impulses (electric messengers) from other neurons and stimuli.
Card Set:
2012-01-09 05:41:00

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