Academic Bio Midterm

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Academic Bio Midterm
2012-01-07 22:58:21

Academic Bio Midterm
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  1. Atom
    The basic unit of life
  2. Element
    A pure substance with only one atom
  3. Isotope
    Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain
  4. Covalent Bond
    Electrons are shared by atoms instead of being transferred
  5. Ionic Bond
    One or more electrons and transferred from one atom to another
  6. Ion
    Charged atoms
  7. An atom that loses an electron has a _____ charge
  8. Molecule
    The structure that results when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds
  9. Van der Waals forces
    The slight attractions that develope between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
  10. The vertical columns on a periodic table are called ____
  11. The horizontal rows of the periodic table are called ____
  12. How many electrons fit on each shell?
    2, 8, 18
  13. Mixture
    Material of two or more elements mixed together
  14. Suspension
    A mix of water and non dissolved material
  15. What is the greatest solvent in the world?
  16. Solution
    A mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly mixed
  17. pH Scale
    The concentration of H+ atoms
  18. Acidic (pH)

    The compound that forms H+ ions
  19. Neutral (pH)

  20. Base (pH)

    Forms OH-
  21. Buffer
    A weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sudden changes in pH
  22. Hydrogen Bond
    A weak bond that forms when H2O molecules attract each other
  23. Macromolecules
    Large molecules
  24. Polymerization
    Process when macromolecules are fromed
  25. Polymers
    Formed when monomers join together
  26. What are the four organic compounds found in living things?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Proteins
  27. What makes up a carb?
  28. 3 Monosaccharides:
    • Glucose
    • Fructose
    • Galactose
  29. 3 Disaccharides:
    • Maltose
    • Sucrose
    • Lactose
  30. 3 Polysaccharides:
    • Starch
    • Amylose
    • Cellulose
  31. Where is starch found?
  32. What two polysaccharides provide energy?
    • Starch
    • Amylose
  33. What is the purpose of cellulose?
    Plant Structure
  34. What makes up protein?
  35. What do proteins make?
    Amino Acids
  36. Where are proteins found in humans?
  37. What are lipids made up of?
  38. What do lipids make up?
    Fatty Acids:

    Fats, oils, waxes -> non-polar
  39. What are two purposes of lipids?
    • Insulation
    • Stores Energy
  40. What are nucleic acids made up of?
  41. What do nucleic acids make?
    • RNA
    • DNA
  42. What is the purpose of nucleic acids?
    Store genetic information
  43. Chemical Reaction
    A process to change chemicals into other chemicals
  44. Reactants
    Go through a reaction
  45. Products
    What is produced in a reaction
  46. What is released or absorbed whenever chemical bonds from or are broken?
  47. Activation Energy
    The energy needed to start a chemical reaction
  48. Catalyst
    Speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy
  49. Enzymes
    Biological catalysts
  50. Subrates
    The reactiants of enzymes-catalyzed reactions
  51. Enzyme-Substrate Complex
    The binding together of an enzyme and a substrate
  52. Prokaryotes
    Organisms that lack nuclei (Bacteria)
  53. Eukaryotes
    Organisms with nuclei (Plants, animals, fungi, protists)
  54. Cells
    Make up every living thing
  55. Anton van Leeuwenhoek
    One of the first to see organisms in water
  56. Robert Hooke
    Saw thousands of empty chambers in a thin slice of cork under a microscope
  57. Matthais Schleiden
    Found that all plants are made of cells
  58. Theodor Schwann
    Found that all animals are made of cells
  59. Rudolph Virchow
    Found that cells can only be produced by the division of existing cells
  60. Cell Theory
    • All living things are made of cells
    • Cells are the basic units of structure in living things
    • New cells are made from existing cells
  61. Nucleus
    Control Center
  62. Chromatin
    DNA bound to protein
  63. Nuclear Envelope
    Controls movement of materials in and out of the cell
  64. Mitochondria
  65. Golgi
    Packages and sorts proteins and other materials
  66. Chromosomes
    Condensed chromatin
  67. Nucleolus
    Where ribosomes are produced
  68. Cell Membrane
    Controls movement in and out of the cell
  69. Lysosomes
    Digest nutrients and destroy organelles.
  70. Vacuole
    Storage Area
  71. Ribosomes
    Make Protein
  72. Cytoplasm
    Fluid outside the nucleus
  73. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Makes lipids and protein that are exported throughout the cell
  74. Cell wall
    Supports and proects the cell
  75. Centrioles
    Help organize cell division
  76. Osmosis
    Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
  77. Diffusion
    Particles move from more concentrated area to a less concentrated area
  78. Active Transport
    The energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane across a concentration
  79. Endocytosis
    Taking material into the cell by infolding, or pockets of the cell membrane
  80. Phagocytosis
    Cytoplasm surround a particle & package it within a food vacuole
  81. Exocytosis
    Membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell
  82. Autotroph
    Organisms that make their own food
  83. Heterothophs
    Organism that obtain energy from the food they eat
  84. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
    • One of the principal chemical compounds that cells use to store energy
    • Made of Adenine, Ribose, 3 Phosphate Groups
  85. How do cells use the energy provided by ATP?
    • Protein synthesis
    • Muscle contraction
    • Active transport