List 3 criteria that a molecule must satisfy to be classified as a NT
made and stored in presyn. terminal, released from presyn terminal w/ AP stimulation and if given exogenously, produces an effect/response identical to if it was released from presyn terminal.
List the AA NT
Glutamate, Glycine and GABA
List the amine NT
Catecholamines (DA, NE and Epi), AcH, and 5HT (indolamine)
What are the 3 general categories of NTs?
Amine (monoamine), AA and peptides
What is the amygdala involved in?
Emotions. Also plays a role in learning and memory of emotional experiences.
side note: rostral to hippocampus
Name the five areas of the hippocampus.
CA1 through 4 and subiculum
True or false. The hippocampus is involved in motor functions
False. It's involved in learning and memory
What are the components of the lenticular nucleus?
The putamen and globus pallidus
The combination of the caudate and putamen make what?
The corpus striatum
What is the basal ganglia involved in?
Involved in voluntary control of motor movements and posture
The 2 components of the limbic system?
Hippocampus and Amygdala
What does the limbic system control?
What is the one component of the deep cortical areas and what does that consist of?
Basal Ganglia. Consists of Caudate, Putamen and Globus Pallidus
Name the 3 cortices (outer layer) that the cerebral cortex is divided into.
Motor- involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary motor functions
Sensory-processes sound to contribute to our ability to hear
Association- associates sensory and motor information in learning, thinking, memory,etc; cognitive function/complex processing
List the 4 different lobes of the cerebral cortex and their function.
Occipital- visual processing
Temporal- auditory (+visual to a certant extent)
What is another name for the grooves in the cerebral cortex?
What is another name for the folds in the cerebral cortex?
Why does the cerebral cortex have a large surface area?
To pack lots of neurons inside. It's due to lots of folds (Gyri) and grooves (Sulci).
What does the cerebral cortex do?
Pereives sensory and motor inputs. Also initiates outputs.
True or false. The hypothalamus can regulate the autonomic nervous system.
Which parts of the brain is the hypothalamus connected to?
Thalamus, midbrain and cortex
What does the hypothalamus regulate?
It regulates the hormone system (endocrine) through the pituitary gland
True or false. The thalamus regulates input and output signals related to emotion and awareness.
What is the significance of the thalamus?
A major relay station for sensory and motor fiber tracts. Also a critical role in sensory and motor processing
What does the diencephalon consist of?
Thalamus, hypothalamas AND gray matter
Where is the diencephalon located?
located b/w the midbrain and the cerebral hemispheres
What is the orientation of the diencephalon relative to the brainstem?
What components make up the brainstem?
Midbrain + Hindbrain - cerebellum = brainstem
What does the ventral tegmental area do? What part of the brain is it located in?
Synthesizes dopamine and is controls sensation of pleasure. It is part of the midbrain
What is the substantia nigra's function? What part of the brain is it in?
Controls in voluntary muscle movement and is a nucleus for dopamine synthesis.
Red nucleus function? What part of the brain is it part of?
Involved in motor coordination
What part of the brain is the tegmentum part of? 3 components of tegmentum (Floor)?
Red nucleus, substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area
What is the superior colliculi responsible for? Inferior?
Superior is responsible for relaying visual info. Inferior is reponsible for relaying auditory info.
Name the 2 parts of the tectum
Superior and Inferior Colliculi
What is the tectum responsible for?
relays visual and auditory information, as well as eye and ear orientation and movements
What are the two parts of the midbrain?
tectum (roof) and tegmentum (floor)
What is the cerebellum involved in?
Planning, timing and patterns of skeletal muscsle contractions during movement. Also plays a role in maintaining posture, and coordinating head and eye movements.
Where and what kind of information does the cerebellum receive information from.
Spinal cord= somatosensory info.
Cerebral Cortex= motor information
Vestibular organs of inner ear= balance info
NT that Locus Coeruleus makes and releases
side note: This is the primary location for NE synthesis in brain.
What NT does the raphe nucleus synthesize and release?
Define nucleus in terms of the CNS
It is a collection of bodies that do the same thing
Name the two specialized regions of the Pons
Raphe Nucleus and Locus Ceoruleus
What do the axons passing through the pons control?
They control the dreams in your sleep that arouse you.
The pons is connected to what other part of the brain?
The medulla connects the _____ and _____
brain and spinal cord
The Medulla is responsible for respiration, salivation, vomitting, heart rate. Anything missing?
Yes, blood pressure.
What is the most caudal part of the brain stem?
Name the two components of the hindbrain (and the optional one)
Medulla Oblongata, pons (and cerebellum)
Explain how a pain signal travels from the fingertips to the muscle.
Pain receptor in skin--> signal goes through afferent dendrite--> dorsal root ganglion--> dorsal root (innervates dorsal horn) --> interneuron in the spinal cord--> cell body of efferent neuron--> efferent axon/ventral root/motor neuron axon--> target= muscle.
A signal is efferent if....
it goes from the brain to the spinal cord or the spinal cord to target tissue/organ, etc
A signal is afferent if it goes from....
sensory neuron to spinal cord or spinal cord to brain
What is an interneuron?
A neuron where all of its' component (dendrite, cell body, axon and axonal termnal are located in the same CNS region.
Where in the spinal cord is the cell body of the ventral root?
What is the ventral root of the spinal cord?
The motor neuron axons
What is the dorsal root ganglion of the spinal cord?
Sensory neuron cell body
What is the ventral horn responsible for?
What is the dorsal horn responsible for?
Receiving sensory input from the periphery
The spinal cord "processes" signals. What does "process" mean?
To magnify or reduce a signal or message before it's sent to the brain.
True or false. The spinal cord only relays sensory and motor input and output signals.
False. It relays AND processes sensory and motor input and output signals
What is the most caudal region of the CNS?
Name the 8 regions of the CNS.
Spinal Cord, Medulla, Pons, Cerebellum, Diencephalon, Midbrain, Cerebral Cortex, and Deep cortical areas
Which of the three axonal fibers in white matter plays the biggest role in inter-hemisphere communication.
Why is white matter white?
The myelin sheath of the axons
White matter is composed of axonal fibers. Name them and their function.
Corpus Callosum, Anterior and Posterior Commisure. They project fibers to brain regions to transmit messages and connect the two hemispheres together.
What 2 things are located in the Gray Matter?
Cell bodies and dendrites
List 4 terms (and their alternate term) for CNS orientation