CNS Anatomy

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Anonymous
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126487
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CNS Anatomy
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2012-01-07 23:55:14
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CNS Nazarian
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5223. 1/2/2012
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  1. List 3 criteria that a molecule must satisfy to be classified as a NT
    made and stored in presyn. terminal, released from presyn terminal w/ AP stimulation and if given exogenously, produces an effect/response identical to if it was released from presyn terminal.
  2. List the AA NT
    Glutamate, Glycine and GABA
  3. List the amine NT
    Catecholamines (DA, NE and Epi), AcH, and 5HT (indolamine)
  4. What are the 3 general categories of NTs?
    Amine (monoamine), AA and peptides
  5. What is the amygdala involved in?
    Emotions. Also plays a role in learning and memory of emotional experiences.

    side note: rostral to hippocampus
  6. Name the five areas of the hippocampus.
    CA1 through 4 and subiculum
  7. True or false. The hippocampus is involved in motor functions
    False. It's involved in learning and memory
  8. What are the components of the lenticular nucleus?
    The putamen and globus pallidus
  9. The combination of the caudate and putamen make what?
    The corpus striatum
  10. What is the basal ganglia involved in?
    Involved in voluntary control of motor movements and posture
  11. The 2 components of the limbic system?
    Hippocampus and Amygdala
  12. What does the limbic system control?
    Emotion
  13. What is the one component of the deep cortical areas and what does that consist of?
    Basal Ganglia. Consists of Caudate, Putamen and Globus Pallidus
  14. Name the 3 cortices (outer layer) that the cerebral cortex is divided into.
    • Motor- involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary motor functions
    • Sensory-processes sound to contribute to our ability to hear
    • Association- associates sensory and motor information in learning, thinking, memory,etc; cognitive function/complex processing
  15. List the 4 different lobes of the cerebral cortex and their function.
    • Frontal- thought/cognitive
    • Parietal- spatial
    • Occipital- visual processing
    • Temporal- auditory (+visual to a certant extent)
  16. What is another name for the grooves in the cerebral cortex?
    Sulci
  17. What is another name for the folds in the cerebral cortex?
    Gyri
  18. Why does the cerebral cortex have a large surface area?
    To pack lots of neurons inside. It's due to lots of folds (Gyri) and grooves (Sulci).
  19. What does the cerebral cortex do?
    Pereives sensory and motor inputs. Also initiates outputs.
  20. True or false. The hypothalamus can regulate the autonomic nervous system.
    True
  21. Which parts of the brain is the hypothalamus connected to?
    Thalamus, midbrain and cortex
  22. What does the hypothalamus regulate?
    It regulates the hormone system (endocrine) through the pituitary gland
  23. True or false. The thalamus regulates input and output signals related to emotion and awareness.
    True
  24. What is the significance of the thalamus?
    A major relay station for sensory and motor fiber tracts. Also a critical role in sensory and motor processing
  25. What does the diencephalon consist of?
    Thalamus, hypothalamas AND gray matter
  26. Where is the diencephalon located?
    located b/w the midbrain and the cerebral hemispheres
  27. What is the orientation of the diencephalon relative to the brainstem?
    Anterior
  28. What components make up the brainstem?
    Midbrain + Hindbrain - cerebellum = brainstem
  29. What does the ventral tegmental area do? What part of the brain is it located in?
    Synthesizes dopamine and is controls sensation of pleasure. It is part of the midbrain
  30. What is the substantia nigra's function? What part of the brain is it in?
    Controls in voluntary muscle movement and is a nucleus for dopamine synthesis.
  31. Red nucleus function? What part of the brain is it part of?
    Involved in motor coordination
  32. What part of the brain is the tegmentum part of? 3 components of tegmentum (Floor)?
    Red nucleus, substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area
  33. What is the superior colliculi responsible for? Inferior?
    Superior is responsible for relaying visual info. Inferior is reponsible for relaying auditory info.
  34. Name the 2 parts of the tectum
    Superior and Inferior Colliculi
  35. What is the tectum responsible for?
    relays visual and auditory information, as well as eye and ear orientation and movements
  36. What are the two parts of the midbrain?
    tectum (roof) and tegmentum (floor)
  37. What is the cerebellum involved in?
    Planning, timing and patterns of skeletal muscsle contractions during movement. Also plays a role in maintaining posture, and coordinating head and eye movements.
  38. Where and what kind of information does the cerebellum receive information from.
    • Spinal cord= somatosensory info.
    • Cerebral Cortex= motor information
    • Vestibular organs of inner ear= balance info
  39. NT that Locus Coeruleus makes and releases
    NE.

    side note: This is the primary location for NE synthesis in brain.
  40. What NT does the raphe nucleus synthesize and release?
    5-HT
  41. Define nucleus in terms of the CNS
    It is a collection of bodies that do the same thing
  42. Name the two specialized regions of the Pons
    Raphe Nucleus and Locus Ceoruleus
  43. What do the axons passing through the pons control?
    They control the dreams in your sleep that arouse you.
  44. The pons is connected to what other part of the brain?
    Cerebellum
  45. The medulla connects the _____ and _____
    brain and spinal cord
  46. The Medulla is responsible for respiration, salivation, vomitting, heart rate. Anything missing?
    Yes, blood pressure.
  47. What is the most caudal part of the brain stem?
    Medulla Ob-lon-GATA
  48. Name the two components of the hindbrain (and the optional one)
    Medulla Oblongata, pons (and cerebellum)
  49. Explain how a pain signal travels from the fingertips to the muscle.
    Pain receptor in skin--> signal goes through afferent dendrite--> dorsal root ganglion--> dorsal root (innervates dorsal horn) --> interneuron in the spinal cord--> cell body of efferent neuron--> efferent axon/ventral root/motor neuron axon--> target= muscle.
  50. A signal is efferent if....
    it goes from the brain to the spinal cord or the spinal cord to target tissue/organ, etc
  51. A signal is afferent if it goes from....
    sensory neuron to spinal cord or spinal cord to brain
  52. What is an interneuron?
    A neuron where all of its' component (dendrite, cell body, axon and axonal termnal are located in the same CNS region.
  53. Where in the spinal cord is the cell body of the ventral root?
    gray matter
  54. What is the ventral root of the spinal cord?
    The motor neuron axons
  55. What is the dorsal root ganglion of the spinal cord?
    Sensory neuron cell body
  56. What is the ventral horn responsible for?
    Motor output
  57. What is the dorsal horn responsible for?
    Receiving sensory input from the periphery
  58. The spinal cord "processes" signals. What does "process" mean?
    To magnify or reduce a signal or message before it's sent to the brain.
  59. True or false. The spinal cord only relays sensory and motor input and output signals.
    False. It relays AND processes sensory and motor input and output signals
  60. What is the most caudal region of the CNS?
    Spinal Cord
  61. Name the 8 regions of the CNS.
    Spinal Cord, Medulla, Pons, Cerebellum, Diencephalon, Midbrain, Cerebral Cortex, and Deep cortical areas
  62. Which of the three axonal fibers in white matter plays the biggest role in inter-hemisphere communication.
    Corpus Callosum
  63. Why is white matter white?
    The myelin sheath of the axons
  64. White matter is composed of axonal fibers. Name them and their function.
    Corpus Callosum, Anterior and Posterior Commisure. They project fibers to brain regions to transmit messages and connect the two hemispheres together.
  65. What 2 things are located in the Gray Matter?
    Cell bodies and dendrites
  66. List 4 terms (and their alternate term) for CNS orientation
    • SD= superior/dorsal
    • IV= Inferior/ventral
    • AR= anterior/rostral
    • PC= posterior/caudal
  67. The 2 major components of the CNS
    Brain and Spinal Cord

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