Aseptic Final Review

Card Set Information

Aseptic Final Review
2012-01-08 02:04:50
Aseptic Final

Med 102 Review for Final
Show Answers:

    Germs that cause disease
    Germs transmitted from one person to another through contact with blood or (OPIM) other potentially infectious materials
  3. Good Samaritan
    First aid that a person voluntarily gives to another person, such as helping someone with a cut, nosebleed, or other injury off the job.
  4. Occupational exposure
    A reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or OPIM that may result from the performance of employees' duties.
  5. Bloodborne transmission
    The person may come into contact with the infected person's blood, other body fluid, or infectious material in a way that the pathogen enters his or her bpdy through mucous membranes or nonintact skin
  6. Airborne transmission
    The person may inhale the pathogen through tiny droplets in the air
  7. Vector Transmission
    The person may be bitten by an insect, such as a tick or mosquito, carrying the pathogen.
  8. Direct Contact
    Occurs with contact with an infected person or fluids or substances from that person.
  9. Indirect Contact
    Occurs with contact with contaminated objects, food or drink, droplets in the air, or vectors such as insects
  10. Hepatitis B (HBV)
    • a major cause of liver damage, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Transmitted through blood or OPIM.
    • Vaccine to help prevent
  11. Hepatitis C (HCV)
    • Results in eventual liver failure
    • no cure no vaccine
  12. Engineering Controls
    devices that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogens hazard from the workplace.
  13. Sharps
    • General used term for any device or item that may accidentally penetrate the skin of a person handling it.
    • Examples are: scissors, scalpels, and broken glassware.
  14. Decontamination
    the use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy bloodborne pathogens on a surface or an item so that it is no longer infectious.
  15. Sterilize
    means to use a chemical or physical procedure to destroy all microbial life including highly resistant bacterial endospores
  16. Universal precautions
    Phrase used in describing safety guidelines in which all blood and OPIM are handled as if they were all contaminated.
  17. Body Substance Isolation
    an alternative to universal precautions means basically the same thing though
  18. Exposure report form
    Must be kept in employees personnal file. Federal law states employers must maintain strict confidentiality about any exposure incident.
  19. Exposure Control Plan
    To prevent exposure to bloodborne pathogens This plan must be reviewed and updated annually to reflect any changes in work place practices.
  20. Three types of airborne pathogens
    • viral
    • bacterial
    • fungal
  21. Seasonal Flu
    respiratory illness that occurs every year, usually in the fall or winter. Everyone gets seasonal flu at some point in their lives, and most have some immunity.
  22. Bird Flu
    Infects wild birds and domestic poultry. Bird Flu has jumped species to infect humans, when they have close conact with birds or their feces or with intermediate hosts like pigs.
  23. Epidemic
    An outbreak of a disease in a community or region.
  24. Pandemic
    is an epidemic that spreads beyond a community or region throughout the world
  25. Parenteral
    Mean piercing mucous membranes or the skin barrier through such events as needlesticks, human bites, cuts, and abrasions.
  26. Anaphylaxis
    Exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction that in severe cases leade to vascular collapse, broncho-spasm, and shock
  27. Antibody
    Immunoglobulins produced by the immune system in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigenic substances.
  28. Antigen
    Foreign substance that causes the production of a specific antibody
  29. Antiseptics
    • Substance, such as alcohol and povidone-iodine solution (Betadine), that inhibits the growth of microorganisms on living tissue.
    • Effective disinfection and sterilization methods
  30. Autoimmune
    • pertaining to a disturbance in the immune system in which the body reacts against its own tissue.
    • examples of autoimmune disoders include multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus.
  31. Candidiasis
    Infection caused by a yeast that typically affects the vaginal mucous and skin
  32. Coagulate
    to form into clots
  33. Contaminated
    Soiled with pathogens or infectious material; nonsterile
  34. Disinfectant
    Substance such as alcohol or povidone-iodine solution (Betadine) that inhibits the growth of microorganisms on inanimate surfaces or objects.
  35. Germicides
    Agents that destroy pathogenic organisms
  36. Hereditary
    Pertaining to a characteristic, condition, or disease transmitted from parent to offspring on the DNA chain
  37. Interform
    A protein that forms when a call is exposed to a virus, blocking viral action on the cell and providing protection against viral invasion
  38. Nosocomial Infections
    Infections acquired during hospitalization or in a healthcare setting; often caused by escherichia coli, hepatitis viruses, pseudomonas, and staphylococcus micfoorganisms.
  39. Palliative
    Relieving or alleviating symptoms without curing the disease.
  40. Pathophysiology
    Study of the biologic and physical manifestations of disease as they are related to system abnormalities and physiological disturbances.
  41. Permeable
    able to be passed or soaked through
  42. Pyemia
    The presence of puss-forming organisms in the blood
  43. Relapse
    The recorrence of the symptoms of a disease after apparent recovery
  44. Remission
    The partial or complete disappearance of the clinical and subjective characteristics of a chronic or malignant disease.
  45. Rhinitis
    Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose
  46. Spores
    Thick-walled structures formed within certain bacteria, enabling the organism to withstand unfavorable environmental conditions.
  47. Sterile
    Free of all microrganisms, pathogenic, and non-pathogenic
  48. Tinea
    Any fungal skin disease that results in scaling, itching, and inflammation
  49. Urticaria
    A skin eruption creating inflamed wheals, hives
  50. Vectors
    Animals or insects that transmit the causative organims of disease.
  51. Chain of Infection
    name the 6 steps
    • 1. Infectious agent
    • 2. Reservoir host
    • 3. Portal of exit
    • 4. mode of transmission
    • 5. portal of entry
    • 6.susceptible host
  52. Common used Antiseptics
    • Alcohol
    • povidone-iodine (Betadine)
  53. What causes infecious disease
    Any disease caused by the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the body
  54. 5 groups of potentially pathogenic agents or microorganisms
    • viruses
    • bacteria
    • protozoa
    • fungi
    • rickettsia
  55. How do pathogens grow?
    The infected cell or inividual shows a harmful alteration in structure, physiology, or biochemistry
  56. How does inflammation work?
    When trauma occurs to the body, it alerts protective mechanisms, and the body responds in a predictable manner called inflammatory response. This process results in the four classis symptoms: erythema (redness), edema (swelling), pain and heat.
  57. Medical aseptic handwashing
    scrubbing procedure using vigorous, circular motion over wrists and hands for a minimum of 2 minutes.
  58. Surgical Hand scrub
    5 minuted per hand hands held up high to prevent contamination
  59. How does the body protect itself from infection?
  60. Universal precautions
    In 1987 the CDC recomended a new approach to potentially infectious materials
  61. OPIM
    Other potentially infected material
  62. Types of bloodborne diseases
    • Hepatitis B or C
    • HIV
  63. Exposure control plan should do the following:
    • Identify the job and individuals to receive training.
    • Establish necessary engineering controls and work practice controls.
    • Specify PPE to be used
    • Require using universal precautions
    • State the opportunity for hepatitis vaccines
    • Include other measure appropriate for your work environment.
  64. Curettage
    The act of scraping the body cavity with a surgical instrument such as a curette
  65. Dilation
    Opening or widening the circumference of a body orrifice with a dilating instrument or chemical.
  66. Fascia
    Is a sheet or band of fibrous tissue located deep in the skin that covers muscles and body organs.
  67. Fistula
    Abnormal tube like passage between internal organs or from an internal organ to the body surface.
  68. Abscess
    localized collection of pus that may be under the skin or deep into the body that causes tissue destruction
  69. Obturator
    A metal rod with a smooth rounded tip that is placed in hollow instruments to decrease destruction of the body tissues during insertion.
  70. Stylus is a metal prob that is inserted into or passed through....
    • a catheter
    • a needle
    • and to facilitate passge into a body orifice.
  71. Two medications that can help control bleeding
    • Silver nitrate
    • epinephrine
  72. Metzenbaum, mayo, and Iris are names of...
  73. Allis, Boyonet, and Adson are....
  74. Betadine and hibiclens are examples of...
    antiseptics sometimes used in skin preperation
  75. Infection
    The invasion of body tissue by microorganisms that then proliferate and damage tissue.
  76. The recommeded temperature for sterilization in an autoclave.
    121 to 123 degrees C or 250 to 255 degrees F
  77. Guidlines to follow when unloading autoclave
    • Stand behind the door when openining it to prevent accidental steam burn
    • Slowly open the door only a crack, allowing the items to cool for 15-20 minutes before removing them
    • Avoid placing packs on cold surfaces.
  78. Generally, what is the shelf-life of a sterilized pack
    28 days
  79. Types of diseases that are treated in the doctor's office
    • Suturing cyst removal
    • collection of biopsy
    • encision
    • drainage
    • collection of specimens