Gov 2.txt

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Gov 2.txt
2012-01-08 01:59:22
gov chapter

chapter 2
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  1. Constitution
    • A nation's basic law
    • Creates political institutions, assigns/divides powers in government
    • Provides certain guarantees to citizens
    • Can be written or unwritten
  2. Declaration of Independence
    • Approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776
    • Stated grievances against Britain and declared independence
  3. Natural rights
    • Inherent rights of human beings that shouldn't change with govt
    • Include life, liberty and property
    • John Locke was a major supporter
    • Widely accepted by Founders
  4. Consent of the governed
    Government series its authority from the people
  5. Limited government
    Restrictions should be placed on govt to protect natural the rights of citizens
  6. Articles of Confederation
    • First constitution of the US
    • Enacted 1781
    • Natl legislature (Continental Congress) but most authority was in state legislature
  7. Shays' Rebellion
    • Series of attacks on courthouses by a small ban of farmers
    • Showed the frailties in Articles of Confederation
    • Led by Captain Daniel Shays to stop foreclosure proceedings
  8. US Constitution
    • Written in 1787 and ratified 1788
    • Set institutional structure of govt and their tasks
    • Replaced Articles of Confederation
  9. Factions
    • Interest groups that come from unequal distribution of wealth
    • James Madison claimed they would cause instability in govt like today's political parties
  10. New Jersey Plan
    Equal representation of each state in Congress
  11. Virginia Plan
    Called for proportional representation of each state in Congress based on the state's share of the US population
  12. Connecticut Compromise
    Established 2 houses of Congress: the HOR based on population and the Senate with equal representation for every state
  13. Writ of habeas corpus
    Requires jailers to explain to a judge why the prisoner in custody
  14. Separation of powers
    • Requires the 3 branches to be somewhat independent of each other
    • Power is shared among the 3 govt institutions
  15. Checks and balances
    Constitutional limits on gov't power that require a separation of powers
  16. Republic
    Form of govt where the people select representatives to govern them
  17. Federalists
    Supporters of the US Constitution
  18. Anti-Federalists
    Opponents of the US Constitution
  19. Federalist Papers
    • 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison as Publius
    • Defended the Constitution in detail
  20. Bill of rights
    • First 10 amendments to the Constitution
    • Response to some Anti-Federalist concerns
    • Define basic liberties- freedom of religion, speech and press
  21. Equal Rights Amendment
    • Passed by Congress in 1972
    • Failed to acquire support from 3/4 of state legislatures
  22. Marbury v. Madison
    • 1803 John Marshall asserted rights of the Supreme Court to determine what US Constitution means
    • Established power of judicial review over Congress
  23. Judicial review
    Power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress are constitutional