Gov 15.txt

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Gov 15.txt
2012-01-08 02:01:22
gov chapter 15

gov chapter 15
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  1. Bureaucracy
    • A hierarchical authority structure that uses task specialization, operates on the merit principle and behaves with impersonality
    • Governs modern states
    • Well-organized machine
  2. Patronage
    • Used by political machines
    • A job/promotion/contract given for political rather than merit reasons
  3. Pendleton Civil Service Act
    • 1883
    • Created a federal civil service do that hiring was based on merit not patronage
  4. Civil service
    • System of hiring and promotion based on merit and competence
    • Nonpartisan gov't service
  5. Merit principle
    Hiring should be based on entrance exams and ratings to produce a talented and skilled administration
  6. Hatch Act
    Prohibits gov't employees from active participation in partisan politics
  7. Office of Personal Management
    • In charge of hiring for most agencies
    • Elaborate rules for process
  8. General Schedule rating
    • Schedule for federal employees
    • GS1 to GS18
    • Salaries can be keyed to rating and experience
  9. Senior Executive Service
    • 9000 federal gov't managers
    • Mostly career officials but some political appointees (no Senate confirmation required)
    • Established by Civil Service Reform Act of 1978
    • GS16-GS18
  10. Independent regulatory commission
    • Gov't agency responsible for some section of the economy
    • Makes and enforces rules to protect public interests
    • Judges disputes over these rules
  11. Government corporations
    • Provides a service that could be provided by the private sector
    • Typically charges for services
    • US Postal Service
  12. Independent executive agency
    • Gov't not accounted for by cabinet, independent regulatory commissions or gov't corporations
    • Appointed by the president and serve at his pleasure
    • NASA
  13. Policy implementation
    • Stage of policymaking between the establishment and the consequences for the people it affects
    • Translate goals into an ongoing program
  14. Standard operating procedures
    • SOPs
    • Used by bureaucrats to bring uniformity to complex organizations
    • Improves fairness and makes personnel Interchangeable
  15. Administrative discretion
    • Authority of administrative actors to select a response to a problem
    • Most prevalent when case doesn't fit in SOPs
  16. Street-level bureaucrats
    • Bureaucrats in constant contact with the public
    • Higher administrative discretion
  17. Regulation
    • Use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in a private sector
    • Seen in daily lives
  18. Deregulation
    Lifting of restrictions on businesses, industry, and professional activities for which rules were established and bureaucracies created to enforce
  19. Command-and-control policy
    • Typical system of regulation
    • Gov't tells businesses how to reach certain goals, checks that these are followed
    • Punishes offenders
  20. Incentive system
    • Market like strategies used to manage public policy
    • Reward those who follow it
  21. Executive orders
    • Regulations orienting from the executive branch
    • Presidents can use these to control the bureaucracy
  22. Iron triangles
    • Mutually dependent relationship between bureaucratic agencies, committees or subcommittees and interest groups
    • Dominate some areas of domestic policy