Bio 9.txt

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  1. Heredity
    The transmission of traits from one generation to the next
  2. Genetics
    The study of heredity
  3. Character
    • A heritable feature that varies among individuals
    • Eye color
  4. Trait
    • Each variant of a character
    • Blue eyes vs. green eyes
  5. Self fertilize
    Sperm carrying pollen grains land on egg containing carpels of the same plant
  6. Cross fertilization
    Fertilization of one plant by another plant
  7. True breeding
    Varieties for which self fertilization produced identical offspring
  8. Hybrids
    Offspring of 2 different varieties
  9. Cross
    • Hybridization
    • Cross fertilization itself
  10. P generation
    Parent generation
  11. F1 generation
    • Hybrid offspring
    • F for filial Latin for son
  12. F2 generation
    F1 generation's offspring
  13. Mono hybrid cross
    • Cross between 2 true-breeding organisms for one trait
    • Purple pea plant vs. white pea plant
    • Differ in on character
  14. Homozygous
    2 of the same alleles
  15. Allele
    Alternative versions of a gene
  16. Heterozygous
    2 different alleles for the same characteristic
  17. Dominant
    • The allele that determines the organism's appearance
    • Represented by upper case letters
  18. Recessive
    • No noticeable affect on the organisms appearance
    • Represented by lower case letters
  19. Law of segregation
    • A sperm off egg carries 1 allele for each characteristic
    • Allele pairs separate during gamete production
  20. Punnett square
    • Shows the combinations for various alleles that could
    • occur when gametes combine
  21. Phenotype
    The organism's physical traits
  22. Genotype
    An organism's genetic makeup
  23. Locus
    Specific location of a gene along the chromosome
  24. Dihybrid cross
    A mating of parental varieties differing in 2 characteristics
  25. Law of independent assortment
    The inheritance of one character has no effect on the inheritance of another
  26. Testcross
    A mating between an individual of an unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual to determine the former's genotype
  27. Rule of multiplication
    The probability of a compound event is the product of the individual events
  28. Rule of addition
    • The probability that an event can occur in 2+ alternate ways is the sum of the separate probabilitieS
    • Bb + bB
  29. Wild-type traits
    • The traits that prevail in nature
    • Not necessarily specified by dominant alleles
    • Freckles dominant but less common
  30. Pedigree
    • Collection of phenotypes for a certain trait
    • Helps determine genotypes
  31. Carriers
    Heterozygotes who carry a recessive disorder but don't have it themselves
  32. Cystic fibrosis (CF)
    • Recessive disorder
    • Affects 30000 American
    • Excessive secretion of mucus on organs
  33. Inbreeding
    • Matings between close blood relatives
    • Causes a high frequency of recessive disorders
  34. Achondroplasia
    • A form of dwarfism where head and torso are normal but arms and legs are short
    • Dominant disorder
    • Only appears in Aa individuals
    • Less common than aa; proves recessive traits sometimes more common
  35. Huntington's disease
    • Dominant disorder that affects the nervous system later in life
    • More common because people don't know they have it until later
  36. Complete dominance
    The dominant allele has the same effect whether homozygous dominant or heterozygous
  37. Incomplete dominance
    • Heterozygotes are different from homozygous dominant individuals
    • Pink from red and green
  38. ABO blood group
    • Three alleles for a single gene
    • 3 alleles can produce 4 phenotypes
  39. Codominant
    Both alleles are expressed in heterozygotes
  40. Pleiotropy
    One gene influences multiple characters
  41. Sickle-cell disease
    • An example of pleiotropy
    • Makes abnormal hemoglobin as well as impacts the shape of red blood cells and other symptoms
  42. Polygenic inheritance
    • 2+ genes affect one physical trait
    • Skin color
  43. Chromosome theory of inheritance
    Genes occupy specific loci and it is the chromosomes that undergo segregation and independent assortment
  44. Linked genes
    • Genes located close enough together on the same chromosome that are often inherited together
    • Don't follow Mendel's laws
  45. Recombination frequency
    Percentage of recombinants
  46. Linkage map
    • Diagram of relative gene locations
    • Made using recombination frequencies
  47. Sex chromosomes
    Chromosomes that determine an individual's sex
  48. Sex-linked genes
    A gene located on either sex chromosome
  49. Hemophilia
    • X-linked recessive trait
    • Excessive bleeding when injured
    • Plagued the royal families
  50. Red-green colorblindness
    • Malfunction of light sensitive cells
    • Recessive X genmore males affected than females
  51. Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    • Progressive weakening of muscles
    • X-linked recessive disorder
    • More makes affected than females
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Bio 9.txt
bio chapter 9
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