Bio 3.txt

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Author:
cstewart6
ID:
126519
Filename:
Bio 3.txt
Updated:
2012-01-08 02:05:51
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bio chapter
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bio chapter 3
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  1. Organic compounds
    Carbon based molecules
  2. Hydrocarbons
    • Compounds with only carbon and hydrogen
    • Longer ones provide fuel for body cells
  3. Carbon skeleton
    Chain of carbons in an organic compounds
  4. Isomer
    Compounds with the same formula but different structures
  5. Functional groups
    • Polar, hydrophilic
    • First 5 chemical groups
    • Participate in chemical reactions in different ways
  6. Hydrophilic
    • Water-loving
    • Soluble in water
  7. Hydroxyl group
    • Hydrogen bonded to an oxygen atom to the carbon skeleton
    • Called alcohols
  8. Carbonyl group
    • Carbon double bonded to an oxygen
    • If its at the end it's an aldehyde
    • If its within the cabin it's a ketone
  9. Carboxyl group
    Carbon double-bonded to an oxygen and bonded to a hydroxyl group
  10. Amino group
    • Nitrogen bonded to 2 hydrogens and the carbon skeleton
    • Acts as a base
  11. Phosphate group
    • Phosphorous bonded to 4 oxygen atoms
    • Ionized and attached to carbon skeleton by oxygen
    • Often involved in energy transfers-ATP
  12. Methyl group
    • Non-polar; not reactive but affects shape and function
    • Carbon bonded to 3 hydrogens
    • Affects the expression of genes when added to DNA
  13. Macromolecules
    • Very large molecules
    • Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acid
    • Can consist of thousands of atoms
  14. Polymers
    • Chains of small molecules
    • Help form macromolecules
  15. Monomers
    Building blocks of polymers
  16. Dehydration reaction
    Removes a molecule of water from monomers as they are linked together by a covalent bond
  17. Hydrolysis
    • The break down of macromolecules
    • Add water to break down polymers and make monomers available to cells
  18. Enzymes
    • Specialized macromolecules
    • Speed up chemical reactions
  19. Carbohydrate
    • A class of molecules
    • Very broad- small sugars, large starches, etc.
  20. Monosaccharides
    Carbohydrate monomers
  21. Disaccharide
    2 monosaccharides linked with a dehydration reaction
  22. Polysaccharides
    • Macromolecules, 100s to 1000s of monosaccharides linked
    • Starch, glycogen, and cellulose
  23. Starch
    • Storage polysaccharide in plants
    • Made of glucose monomers
    • Coiled in a helical shape
  24. Glycogen
    • Storage polysaccharide in animals
    • Stored in liver and muscle cells
  25. Cellulose
    • Most abundant organic compound
    • Polymer of glucose, makes plant walls
    • Monomers linked by hydrogen bonds my dehydration reactions
  26. Chitin
    Structural polysaccharide used to build exoskeletons
  27. Lipids
    • Don't mix well with others but otherwise different lipids share few characteristics
    • Carbon and hydrogen bonds linked by non polar covalent bonds
  28. Hydrophobic
    • Avoid water
    • Oils repel water
  29. Fat
    Large lipid made from glycerol and 3 fatty acids
  30. Glycerol
    Alcohol with 3 carbons and 3 hydroxyl groups
  31. Unsaturated fatty acid
    • Double bonds in the carbon chain cause kinks and 2 fewer hydrogen atoms per double bonded carbon
    • Liquids
  32. Saturated fatty acid
    • No double bonded carbons so the maximum number of hydrogens
    • Solids
  33. Trans fats
    Fat produced from hydrogenation that's associated with health risks
  34. Phospholipids
    • Major component of cell membranes
    • 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol and a - phosphate group
  35. Steroids
    Lipids- carbon skeleton has 4 fused rings
  36. Cholesterol
    • Common component in cell membranes
    • Starting material to make steroids
  37. Anabolic steroids
    • Synthetic testosterone
    • Cause buildup of muscle and bone mass in males
    • Can be harmful
  38. Protein
    • Polymer of amino acids
    • Most structurally complex molecule
  39. Amino acids
    • Have an amino group and a carboxyl group covalently bonded to a central carbon
    • Monomers of proteins
  40. Peptide bond
    Result of covalent linkage from dehydration reactions
  41. Polypeptide
    A chain of amino acids
  42. Primary structure
    Unique sequence of amino acids in a protein
  43. Secondary structure
    Parts of polypeptide coil and fold into patterns
  44. Tertiary structure
    Overall 3d shape of a polypeptide
  45. Quaternary structure
    • 2+ polypeptides that work together to perform a specific function
    • Most proteins have it but some don't
  46. DNA
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid
    • Contains genetic information inherited from parents
  47. Gene
    Unit of inheritance
  48. Nucleic acid
    • DNA and RNA
    • Located in the nucleus for the most part (RNA not always in the nucleus)
  49. Ribonucleic acid
    • RNA
    • Build proteins- middle man between DNA and proteins
  50. Nucleotides
    • Monomers that make up nucleic acid
    • A, T, G, C
  51. Double helix
    • 2 polynucleotides wrap around each other
    • DNA structure

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