A&P terms 1

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arwhitetx
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126553
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A&P terms 1
Updated:
2012-01-08 12:25:17
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Anatomy and physiology terms part 1
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  1. Absorption
    • Movement of small organic molecules,
    • electrolytes, vitamins, and water across the digestive tract and into the
    • circulatory system. Also, the movement
    • of a drug from the site of input into the circulation.
  2. Acid
    • Fluid
    • produced in the stomach; breaks down the food material within the stomach into
    • chime.
  3. Adenodie triphosphate(ATP)
    • formed
    • from metabolism of nutrients in the cell; serves as energy sources throughout
    • the body
  4. Adipose, or fat, connective tissue
    • Tissue that stores lipids; acts as an
    • insulator and protector of the organs of the body.
  5. Afferent division
    • Nerve
    • fibers that send impulses from the periphery to the CNS.
  6. Alveoli
    • Functional units of the respiratory
    • system; area in the lungs where the majority of gas exchange takes place;
    • singular form is alveolus.
  7. Amylase
    • Enzyme
    • in pancreatic juice.
  8. Anal canal
    • Area
    • between the rectum and the anus.
  9. Anatomic plane
    • The relation of internal body
    • structures of the surface of the body; imaginary straight line division of the
    • body.
  10. Anatomic position
    • The position of a person standing
    • erect with his or her feet and palms facing the examiner.
  11. Anatomy
    • Study
    • of the body’s structure and organization.
  12. Anterior
    • The
    • front, or ventral, surface.
  13. Anus
    • The
    • end of the anal canal.
  14. Aorta
    • blood
    • from the left ventricle of the heart to the body.
  15. Aortic valve
    • Semilunar valve on the left of the
    • heart; separates the left ventricle from the aorta.
  16. Apex
    Tip of the heart.
  17. Apocrine glands
    • Sweat
    • glands that open into the hair follicles, including in and around the
    • genitalia, axillae, and anus; secret an organic substance (which is odorless
    • until acted upon by surface bacteria) into the hair follicles
  18. Appendicular skeleton
    • Consists
    • of all the bones not within the axial skeleton: upper and lower extremities,
    • the girdles, and their attachments.
  19. Appendix
    • Accessory
    • structure of the cecum.
  20. Aqueous humor
    • Fluid that fills the anterior chamber
    • of the eye; maintains intraocular pressure.
  21. Arachnoid mater
    • Second
    • layer of the meninges
  22. Areolar connective tissue
    • A
    • loose tissue found in most organs of the body; consists of weblike collagen,
    • reticulum, and elastin fibers.
  23. Arrector pili
    • Smooth
    • muscle that surrounds each follicle; responsible for “goose bumps,” which pull
    • the hair upward.
  24. Arterioles
    • Small arterial vessels that supply
    • oxygenated blood to the capillaries.
  25. Ascending colon
    • part of
    • the large intestine
  26. Atria
    • Two
    • receiving chambers of the heart; singular form is atrium
  27. Atrial kick
    • Remaining
    • 20% to 30% of blood forced into the right ventricle during atrial contraction
  28. Atrioventricular node (AV node)
    • A
    • group of cells that conduct an electrical impulse through the heart; located in
    • the floor of the right atrium immediately behind the tricuspid valve and near
    • the opening of the coronary sinus
  29. Auditory ossicles
    • Three
    • small bones (malleus, incus, and stapes) that articulate with each other to
    • transmit sound waves to the cochlea
  30. Auricle
    • Also
    • called the pinna; outer ear
  31. Autonomic nervous system
    • Provides
    • unconscious control of smooth muscle organ and glands
  32. Axial skeleton
    • Made
    • up of the skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, and thoracic cage
  33. Base
    • Top
    • of the heart
  34. Bicuspid valve
    • Left
    • atrioventricular valve in the heart; also called the mitral valve
  35. Bile salts
    • Manufactured
    • in the liver; composed of electrolytes and iron recovered from red blood cells
    • when they die
  36. Blood
    • Liquid
    • connective tissue; allows transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products
  37. Bone
    • Hard
    • connective tissue; consists of living cells and a matrix made of minerals
  38. Bowman’s capsule
    • Located
    • in the renal corpuscle
  39. Brainstem
    • Part
    • of the brain that connects it to the spinal cord; responsible for many of the
    • autonomic functions the body requires to survive (also called vegetative
    • functions)
  40. Bronchioles
    • Smallest
    • of the passages
  41. Bulbourethral glands
    • Pair
    • of small glands that manufacture a mucous-type secretion that unites with the
    • prostate fluid and spermatozoa to form sperm
  42. Bundle of his
    • Fibers
    • located in the upper portion of the interventricular septum; connects the AV
    • node with the right and left bundle branches
  43. Capacitance vessels
    • Venules;
    • have the capability of holding large amounts of volume
  44. Capillaries
    • Tiny
    • vessels that connect arterioles to venules; deliver blood to each cell in the
    • body
  45. Cardiac sphincter
    • Circular
    • muscle that controls the movement of material into the stomach
  46. Carina
    • Area
    • in the bronchial tree that separates into the right and left mainstem bronchi

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