Notable Chemists

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Notable Chemists
2012-01-08 13:58:21

For the quiz on 1-11-12
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  1. Greek - Believed water was the element from which Earth formed; founded Greek science, math, and philosophy.
    Thales of Miletus
  2. Greek - Beleived the Earth was formed from 4 elements: Earth, Water, Air, and Fire.
    Empedocles of Agrigentum
  3. Greek - Developed idea that world consisted of tiny, indivisible atoms.
  4. English - Laid foundation for experimental science and experimental method; wrote Opus Maius / Longer Work
    Roger Bacon
  5. Flemish - "Father of Biochemistry" ; used quantitative methods ; coined word "gas"
    Jan Baptista van Helmont
  6. Irish - volume of gas is inversely proportional to temperature; "father of chemistry"; separated chem from alchemy; defined "element"; wrote Scyptical Chymist
    Robert Boyle
  7. Scottish - Defined specific and latent heat; showed CO2 different from regular air
    Joseph Black
  8. English- Discovered hydrogen and showed water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen
    Henry Cavendish
  9. English- Discovered hydrochloric acid, laughing gas, and oxygen, and prepared carbon dioxide and ammonia
    Joseph Priestly
  10. Swedish- Discovered oxygen, tungsten, chlorine, molybdenum, manganese, and a whole ton of other things.
    Carl Scheele
  11. French- "Father of Modern Chemistry"; wrote Elements of Chemistry; discovered role of oxygen in combustion/respiration and disproved Stahl's theory.
    Antoine Lavoisier
  12. German- "Father of Analytic Chemistry"; discovered uranium and zirconium.
    Martin Klaproth
  13. English- discovered sodium, potassium, magnesium, barium, calcium, and strontium.
    Humphry Davy
  14. French- isolated boron; introduced terms pipette and burette; independently discovered Charles' law (gas volume directly proportional to temperature).
    Joseph Gay-Lussac
  15. English- discovered law of partial pressures and pioneered work in early atomic theory.
    John Dalton
  16. Italian- discovered that equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules; coined "molecule"
    Armedo Avogadro
  17. French- discovered iodine.
    Bernard Courtois (not important at all)
  18. Swedish- discovered cerium, selenium, and thorium; originated modern system of chemical symbols/formulae
    Jons Jacob Berzelius
  19. German- founded organic chemistry; synthesized organic compounds from inorganic reactants and refuted "vital force" theory
    Frederich Wohler
  20. Scottish- founded colloid chemistry and known for a law of diffusion
    Thomas Graham
  21. English- discovered relationship between electricity and valence of elements; laws of electrolysis; pioneered liquefaction of gases
    Michael Faraday
  22. German- pioneered spectroscopy with Kirchoff; developed a namesake piece of lab equipment; discovered caesium and rubidium
    Robert Bunsen
  23. English- discovered thallium and invented the radiometer
    William Crookes
  24. Russian- developed the periodic table and wrote Elements of Chemistry
    Dmitri Mendeleev
  25. German- developed a 57-element periodic table independently of Mendeleev
    Lothar Meyer
  26. German- suggested molecular structure of benzene; founded the structure theory of organic chemistry
    Frederich Kekule or Frederich Kekule von Stradonitz
  27. French- developed rayon
    Hillaire Chardonnet (not important whatsoever)
  28. American- founded chemical thermodynamics; developed a namesake phase rule applicable to equilibria
    Josiah Williard Gibbs
  29. French- founded microbiology and germ theory of disease; developed pasteurization, vaccine against rabies, and preventative medicine
    Louis Pasteur
  30. English- determined the relationship between elements' atomic numbers and properties; put elements in correct places on table
    Henry Mosely
  31. French- known for a principle concerning the shifting of equilibria.
    Henry LeChatlier
  32. French- shared 1903 Physics Nobel with the Curies for discovering natural radioactivity.
    Henri Becquerel
  33. Polish-French- Discovered radium and polonium with husband; shared 1903 Physics Nobel; won 1911 Chem Nobel for the study of radium
    Marie Curie
  34. Swedish- Developed theory of electrolytic dissociation (ionization); won 1903 Chem Nobel
    Svante Arrhenius
  35. Russian- Developed chromatography
    Michael Tswett (not important)
  36. English- Won 1906 Physics Nobel for researching gases' conductivity of electricity; discovered electron
    J.J. Thomson
  37. English- developed the theory of the atom; discovered protons and alpha and beta radiation; "Father of Nuclear Science"; won 1908 Chem Nobel for work on radioactive substances
    Ernest Rutherford
  38. German- pioneered X-ray crystallography
    Max von Laue (not important)
  39. Danish- developed theory of atomic structure
    Niels Bohr
  40. American- first American chemist to win Nobel; determined atomic weights
    Theodore Richards (not important)
  41. English- used X rays to determine crystal structures, for which they won 1915 Physics Nobel
    William Bragg and W. Lawrence Bragg
  42. German- invented a process to produce ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen, for which he won the 1918 Chem Nobel
    Fritz Haber
  43. German-American- developed relativity and showed mass-energy equivalence with E=mc2
    Albert Einstein
  44. American- developed the modern theory of valence, thermodynamics, and acid-base theory
    Gilbert Lewis
  45. German- won the 1920 Chem Nobel for his formulation of the 3rd law of thermodynamics (entropy --> 0 as temperature --> absolute zero).
    Walther Nernst
  46. English- invented mass spectrograph; received 1922 Chem Nobel for discovery of isotopes in non-radioactive elements
    Francis Aston (not important at all)
  47. Danish- known for theory on acids and bases (1922)
    Johannes Bronsted
  48. English- developed acid-base theory independently of Bronsted.
    Thomas Lowry
  49. Swedish- developed ultracentrifuge; won 1926 Chem Nobel for work on dispersion systems and colliod chemistry
    Theodor Svedberg (not important)
  50. German- shared 1931 Chem nobel with Bosch for high-pressure chemical methods
    Frederich Bergius
  51. American- won 1932 Chem Nobel for discoveries of molecular films on surfaces; invented gas-filled electric lightbulb
    Irving Langmuir (not important)
  52. American- discovered positron (anti-electron); won 1936 Physics Nobel; discovered mesons in cosmic rays
    Carl David Anderson
  53. American- Won 1934 Chem Nobel for discovery of deuterium (heavy water) - rare hydrogen isotope
    Harold Urey
  54. English- won 1935 Physics Nobel for discovering the neutron
    James Chadwick
  55. American- Invented the cyclotron
    E.O. Lawrence
  56. German- won 1944 Chem Nobel for discovering fission in heavy nuclei
    Otto Hahn
  57. American- shared 1951 Chem Nobel with McMillan for transuranic elements; co-discovered elements 94-102 with a cyclotron: plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, and nobelium
    Glenn Seaborg
  58. American- Won 1954 Chem Nobel for work on the nature of the chemical bond
    Linus Pauling
  59. American- won 1960 Chem Nobel for discovering radiocarbon dating techniques.
    Willard Libby
  60. American- won 1961 Chem Nobel for discoveries concerning photosynthesis
    Melvin Calvin