Greek - Believed water was the element from which Earth formed; founded Greek science, math, and philosophy.
Thales of Miletus
Greek - Beleived the Earth was formed from 4 elements: Earth, Water, Air, and Fire.
Empedocles of Agrigentum
Greek - Developed idea that world consisted of tiny, indivisible atoms.
English - Laid foundation for experimental science and experimental method; wrote Opus Maius / Longer Work
Flemish - "Father of Biochemistry" ; used quantitative methods ; coined word "gas"
Jan Baptista van Helmont
Irish - volume of gas is inversely proportional to temperature; "father of chemistry"; separated chem from alchemy; defined "element"; wrote Scyptical Chymist
Scottish - Defined specific and latent heat; showed CO2 different from regular air
English- Discovered hydrogen and showed water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen
English- Discovered hydrochloric acid, laughing gas, and oxygen, and prepared carbon dioxide and ammonia
Swedish- Discovered oxygen, tungsten, chlorine, molybdenum, manganese, and a whole ton of other things.
French- "Father of Modern Chemistry"; wrote Elements of Chemistry; discovered role of oxygen in combustion/respiration and disproved Stahl's theory.
German- "Father of Analytic Chemistry"; discovered uranium and zirconium.
English- discovered sodium, potassium, magnesium, barium, calcium, and strontium.
French- isolated boron; introduced terms pipette and burette; independently discovered Charles' law (gas volume directly proportional to temperature).
English- discovered law of partial pressures and pioneered work in early atomic theory.
Italian- discovered that equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules; coined "molecule"
French- discovered iodine.
Bernard Courtois (not important at all)
Swedish- discovered cerium, selenium, and thorium; originated modern system of chemical symbols/formulae
Jons Jacob Berzelius
German- founded organic chemistry; synthesized organic compounds from inorganic reactants and refuted "vital force" theory
Scottish- founded colloid chemistry and known for a law of diffusion
English- discovered relationship between electricity and valence of elements; laws of electrolysis; pioneered liquefaction of gases
German- pioneered spectroscopy with Kirchoff; developed a namesake piece of lab equipment; discovered caesium and rubidium
English- discovered thallium and invented the radiometer
Russian- developed the periodic table and wrote Elements of Chemistry
German- developed a 57-element periodic table independently of Mendeleev
German- suggested molecular structure of benzene; founded the structure theory of organic chemistry
Frederich Kekule or Frederich Kekule von Stradonitz
French- developed rayon
Hillaire Chardonnet (not important whatsoever)
American- founded chemical thermodynamics; developed a namesake phase rule applicable to equilibria
Josiah Williard Gibbs
French- founded microbiology and germ theory of disease; developed pasteurization, vaccine against rabies, and preventative medicine
English- determined the relationship between elements' atomic numbers and properties; put elements in correct places on table
French- known for a principle concerning the shifting of equilibria.
French- shared 1903 Physics Nobel with the Curies for discovering natural radioactivity.
Polish-French- Discovered radium and polonium with husband; shared 1903 Physics Nobel; won 1911 Chem Nobel for the study of radium
Swedish- Developed theory of electrolytic dissociation (ionization); won 1903 Chem Nobel
Russian- Developed chromatography
Michael Tswett (not important)
English- Won 1906 Physics Nobel for researching gases' conductivity of electricity; discovered electron
English- developed the theory of the atom; discovered protons and alpha and beta radiation; "Father of Nuclear Science"; won 1908 Chem Nobel for work on radioactive substances
German- pioneered X-ray crystallography
Max von Laue (not important)
Danish- developed theory of atomic structure
American- first American chemist to win Nobel; determined atomic weights
Theodore Richards (not important)
English- used X rays to determine crystal structures, for which they won 1915 Physics Nobel
William Bragg and W. Lawrence Bragg
German- invented a process to produce ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen, for which he won the 1918 Chem Nobel
German-American- developed relativity and showed mass-energy equivalence with E=mc2
American- developed the modern theory of valence, thermodynamics, and acid-base theory
German- won the 1920 Chem Nobel for his formulation of the 3rd law of thermodynamics (entropy --> 0 as temperature --> absolute zero).
English- invented mass spectrograph; received 1922 Chem Nobel for discovery of isotopes in non-radioactive elements
Francis Aston (not important at all)
Danish- known for theory on acids and bases (1922)
English- developed acid-base theory independently of Bronsted.
Swedish- developed ultracentrifuge; won 1926 Chem Nobel for work on dispersion systems and colliod chemistry
Theodor Svedberg (not important)
German- shared 1931 Chem nobel with Bosch for high-pressure chemical methods
American- won 1932 Chem Nobel for discoveries of molecular films on surfaces; invented gas-filled electric lightbulb
Irving Langmuir (not important)
American- discovered positron (anti-electron); won 1936 Physics Nobel; discovered mesons in cosmic rays
Carl David Anderson
American- Won 1934 Chem Nobel for discovery of deuterium (heavy water) - rare hydrogen isotope
English- won 1935 Physics Nobel for discovering the neutron
American- Invented the cyclotron
German- won 1944 Chem Nobel for discovering fission in heavy nuclei
American- shared 1951 Chem Nobel with McMillan for transuranic elements; co-discovered elements 94-102 with a cyclotron: plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, and nobelium
American- Won 1954 Chem Nobel for work on the nature of the chemical bond
American- won 1960 Chem Nobel for discovering radiocarbon dating techniques.
American- won 1961 Chem Nobel for discoveries concerning photosynthesis