Phylums Porifera and Cnidaria

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  1. Multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic, and lacks rigid cell walls.
    Kingdom Animalia
  2. What are the characteristics of Kingdom Animalia?
    • 1. Heterotrophic
    • 2. Metazoans
    • 3. Specialization
    • 4. 3 Grades of organisms
  3. Eat other orgainsms, they do not make their own food.
  4. Organism that eats plants.
  5. Organsims that eats meat.
  6. Organism that eats plants and animals.
  7. Organism that lives in or on the body of another.
  8. Feeds by straining tiny plants & animals from H20.
    Filter feeder
  9. Feeds on bits of decaying plants and animals.
    Detritus feeders
  10. Multicellular animals.
  11. What is the advantage of being multicellular?
    They are bigger. (less energy to move, less energy to maintain temperature, better offense/defense, buffers against environmental change).
  12. Adapting a cell for a specific job.
  13. Specialization makes cells more dependent on each other. What is this called?
    Increased interdependency
  14. What are the various tasks that cells perform in an organism?
    Respiration, transport, contraction, defense, chemical breakdown ->digestion, reproduction.
  15. What are the three grades of organisms in Kingdom Animalia?
    • a. Mesozoa
    • b. Parazoa
    • c. Eumetazoa
  16. This grade of organism in Kingdom Animalia is "weird".
  17. Phylum Porifera and Phylum Placozoa, they are outside the lines of evolution from protozoa to metazoa.
  18. All other phyla.
  19. Cilated, worm-like parasites.
    Phylum Mesozoa (Grade Mesozoa)
  20. They are minute, ciliated, wormlike animals.
    Phylum Mesozoa
  21. The majority are 0.5-7.0 mm in length.
    Phylum Mesozoa
  22. They are composed of only 20-30 cells, arranged in 2 layers.
    Phylum Mesozoa
  23. All live as parasites in marine invertebrates (Octopus, clams, brittle stars and more).
    Phylum Mesozoa
  24. What are the classes of Phylum Mesozoa?
    • 1. Rhombozoa
    • 2. Orthonectids
  25. Worm-like, only 20-30 cells, live in the kidneys of deep sea mollusks, very tiny, transitional animals that are very simple.
  26. What are adult Rhombozoas called?
    Vermiforms, and they are long and slender.
  27. A parasite of invertebrates like brittle stars, bivalve mollusks, polychetes and nemerteans.
  28. Life cycle includes sexual and asexual stages.
  29. What does the asexual stage consist of in Orthonectids?
    A multinucleated mass called a plasmodium which gives rise to males and females (after division).
  30. How are the mesozoans significant in the phylogeny of the animal kingdom?
    Mesozoans were once thought to be evolutionary intermediate forms between Protozoans and Metazoans, but now they are thought to be degenerate or simplifed Metazoa.
  31. Contains a single species: Trichoplax adhaerens.
    Phylum Placozoa
  32. They have a platelike body, no symmetry, no organs, no muscular or nervous system.
    Phylum Placozoa
  33. Approximately 2-3 mm in length.
    Phylum Placozoa
  34. Dorsal epithelium of cover cells and shiny spheres.
    Phylum Placozoa
  35. Thick ventral epithelium containing monociliated cells (cylinder cells) and nonciliated gland cells.
    Phylum Placozoa
  36. What has a space between the epithelia containing fluid and fibrous cells?
    Phylum Placozoa
  37. What is Phylum Placozoa's way of acquiring food?
    • 1. Glide over prey
    • 2. Rain digestive enzymes
    • 3. Absorb nutrients
  38. What is the phylum that sponges are in?
    Phylum Porifera
  39. What is the key evolutionary advance of the sponges?
    They have extreme multicellularity.
  40. What kind of symmetry do Phylum Porifera (sponges) have?
  41. What habitat do Phylum Porifera (sponges) live in?
    Salt water marine.
  42. What is Phylum Porifera (sponges) method of locomotion?
  43. What color are Phylum Porifera (sponges)?
    They can be almost any color.
  44. How do Phylum Porifera (sponges) live?
    May live individually or in colonies.
  45. What size are Phylum Porifera (sponges)?
    Vary in size from a mm to 2m or more across.
  46. They have no organs, no true tissues, no nervous system or sense organs and often have a noxious odor.
    Phylum Porifera (sponges)
  47. How many marine species of Phylum Porifera (sponges) are there?
    5,000 or more.
  48. How many freshwater species of Phylum Porifera (sponges) are there?
    Approximately 150 freshwater species.
  49. This Phylum has a hollow body (Spongocoel) surrounded by cells and spicules arranged in a jellylike layer.
    Phylum Porifera (sponges)
  50. What is the jellylike layer that contains cells and spicules that surrounds the hollow body (Spongocoel) referred to as?
    Mesoglea (also mesenchyme, and mesophyl).
  51. What does the mesoglea contain?
    Amoebocytes and skeletal structures.
  52. What are found throughout the intracellular matrix in Phylum Porifera (sponges)?
    Fibrils of collagen.
  53. Spiky, made of glass, support, structure. Made of calcium carbonate or silica and collagen.
  54. Gives support, composed of collagen fibers.
  55. Tiny pores for incoming water.
    Ostia (singular, Ostium)
  56. Larger pores for the outlet of water.
    Oscula (Osculum, singular)
  57. What are the openings connected by in the body plan of Phylum Porifera (sponges)?
    Canals and chambers.
  58. Why are the ostia smaller than the oscula?
    Increased surface are for more absorptive space, and so they can only take in microscopic molecules that they can digest.
  59. What are they types of cells in Phylum Porifera (sponges)?
    • 1. Pinacocytes
    • 2. Choanocytes
    • 3. Archaeocytes
  60. What are sponge cells arranged in?
    The mesoglea which acts as the connective tissue.
  61. Thin epithelial-like cells that cover the exterior and some interior surfaces. Somewhat contractile, help regulate surface area of the sponge.
    Pinacocytes (pinacoderm).
  62. Flagellated collar cells used in digestion.
    Choanocytes (sometimes called collar cells).
  63. Ameboid cells (Amoebocytes) that move about in the mesoglea.
  64. Can phagocytize particles and receive particles for digestion from choanocytes.
  65. What structural elements do archaeocytes specialize to secrete?
    • A) Choanocytes
    • B) Gemmules (asexual)
    • C) Sex cells of the sponge
  66. What are the types of canal systems?
    • 1. Asconoid
    • 2. Syconoid
    • 3. Leuconoid
  67. Simplest organization (tubular body), water is drawn through dermal pores into the spongocoel which is lined with choanocytes.
    Asconoid (ascon)
  68. Usually found as a part of a branched colony.
    Asconoid (ascon)
  69. Tubular body with thicker body wall containing radial canals lined with choanocytes.
    Syconoids (sycon)
  70. The Spongocoel is lined with epithelial cells rather than choanocytes.
    Syconoids (sycon)
  71. They don't form highly branched colonies like the asconoids.
    Syconoids (sycon)
  72. Found in the classes Hexactinellida and Calcarea.
    Syconoids (sycon)
  73. Most complex, permits increase in size.
    Leuconoids (leucon or rhagon)
  74. Most sponges are this type and form large masses with many oscula.
    Leuconoids (leucon or rhagon)
  75. Provides most choanocytes to meet food demands.
    Leuconoids (leucon or rhagon)
  76. Sponges are filter feeders..
    Strain microscopic molecules through the cells themselves.
  77. Where does water enter through in sponges?
    The incurrent pores (ostia).
  78. Where does water exit through in sponges?
    The larger excurrent pore called an osculum.
  79. What traps and phagocytizes food particles carried in the water?
  80. Is digestion intracellular or extracellular in sponges?
  81. How is respiration and excretion done in sponges?
    By diffusion.
  82. How can sponges reproduce?
    Both asexually and sexually.
  83. What are the two ways that sponges can reproduce asexually?
    • 1. Buds
    • 2. Gemmules
  84. Clone that seperates itself and lives as it's own unique identity.
  85. Formed when the sponge is about to to die due to poor environmental conditions.
  86. What collect in the mesoglea and become surrounded by a tough sponging coat incorporating siliceous spicules in sponges when gemmules are formed?
    Archaeocytes (amoebocytes)
  87. Sponges can regrow missing parts when damaged.
    Regeneration (somatic embryogenesis)
  88. Produce eggs and sperm in sponges. Sperm are...
    Shed into water, enter another sponge, carried to egg by amoebocyte, flagellated larva escapes, settles, develops into a sponge.
  89. What are sponge species most?
    Monoecious (have both sperm and egg).
  90. What are the type of classes of sponges?
    • 1. Calcarea
    • 2. Hexactinellida ("glass sponges")
    • 3. Demospongiae
    • 4. Schlerospongiae
  91. Calcium carbonate spicules, asconoid sponge, shallow water death.
  92. Small and tubular shaped.
  93. Spicules often form a fringe around the osculum, are needle shpaed or 3 or 4 rayed.
  94. Have all three types of canal systems represented and all are marine.
  95. An example of this class is Grantia.
  96. Silicon spicules with six rays, deep water depth.
    Hexactinellida ("glass sponges")
  97. Radially symmetrical with vase or funnel shaped bodies.
    Hexactinellida ("glass sponges")
  98. 6 rayed spicules often unite to form a network.
    Hexactinellida ("glass sponges")
  99. May be syconoid or leuconoid.
    Hexactinellida ("glass sponges")
  100. Mostly deep water, all are marine.
    Hexactinellida ("glass sponges")
  101. An example of this class is Venus' Flower Basket.
    Hexactinellida ("glass sponges")
  102. Spongin with silicon spicules, at all water depths.
  103. 95% of the living sponge species.
  104. All are leuconoid, with varied shapes.
  105. All marine but one family which is freshwater.
  106. An example of this class is bath sponges.
  107. Deep water sponge, silicon and calcium carbonate spicules.
  108. Which phylum has more than 9,000 species?
    Phylum Cnidaria (also called Coelenterata)
  109. What are examples of Phylum Cnidaria (also called Coelenterata)?
    • 1. Jellyfish
    • 2. Sea anemone
    • 3. Portugese man-of-war
    • 4. Hydra
    • 5. Coral
  110. What kind of symmetry does Phylum Cnidaria (also called Coelenterata) have?
  111. What are the two key evolutionary advances of Phylum Cnidaria (also called Coelenterata)?
    • 1. They have tissues
    • 2. They have radial symmetry
  112. What phylum has the longest fossil history of any Metazoan, going back more than 700 million years?
    Phylum Cnidaria (also called Coelenterata)
  113. What is the habitat of Phylum Cnidaria (also called Coelenterata)?
    Mostly marine (but some freshwater).
  114. Who do Phylum Cnidaria (also called Coelenterata) live?
    Singly or in united colonies, sometimes they live symbiotically with other animals.
  115. How are the cells organized in Phylum Cnidaria (also called Coelenterata)?
    Into specialized tissues.
  116. How many germ layers, and which ones, are present in all species of Phylum Cnidaria (also called Coelenterata)?
    2 germ layers are present in all species (endoderm and ectoderm). In some species mesodermis present.
  117. What is the locomotion of Phylum Cnidaria (also called Coelenterata)?
    Mostly sessile.
  118. What are the two life forms of Cnidarians?
    • 1. Polyp
    • 2. Medusa
  119. As Cnidarians have some type of radial symmetry, they have how many body regions?
    Two distinct body regions.
  120. The region where the mouth is located.
  121. The region opposite of the mouth.
  122. Predominantly sessile, has a tubular body with a basal disk on the aboral end.
  123. This type of life form in Cnidarians may exist singly or in colonies.
  124. What are examples of Polyp?
    • 1. Jellyfish
    • 2. Aurelia
    • 3. Stomlophus
    • 4. Box Jellies
  125. Bell shaped and free swimming.
  126. What kind of symmetry do Medusa have?
    Tetramerous symmetry (body parts are arrranged in 4's) is exhibited.
  127. What are examples of Medusa?
  128. What are the two types of Medusa?
    • 1. Dimorphic
    • 2. Polymorphic
  129. Exhibits 2 morphological types or structures (ex. Polyp and medusa). Hydras show this.
    Dimorphic (dimorphism)
  130. Exhibits more than 2 types of forms (reproductive, defensive, food getting, etc...).
    Polymorphic (polymorphism)
  131. How many layers are present in Cnidarians?
    Two layers are present, endoderm and ectoderm. Mesoderm is poorly developed in Coelenterates.
  132. What is the only opening surrounded by the tentacles in Cnidarians?
    The mouth.
  133. Stinging cells that line the tentacles of Cnidarians.
  134. The cnidocytes contain spearlike structures called what?
  135. How many different types of nematocysts have been described?
    Over 20 different types.
  136. What are tiny capsules containing a coiled tubular filament which is actually a continuation of the capsule?
  137. What is the "trigger" called of cnidocytes?
    A cnidocil
  138. A modified cilium, and they are especially abundant on the tentacles.
  139. After discharge, what happens to the cnidocyte?
    It is absorbed and a new one replaces it.
  140. What may nematocysts be armed with?
    Barbs & poison, a sticky substance, or may act as spring traps.
  141. What are tissues of Cnidarians?
    • 1. Epidermis
    • 2. Gastrodermis
    • 3. Mesoglea
  142. The outside layer fromed from the ectoderm. Contains epitheliomuscular cells, interstitial, gland, cnidocyte and sensory nerve cells.
  143. Skin cells that have the ability to contract and move.
    Epitheliomuscular cells
  144. What are the cells of the epidermis in Cnidarians?
    • 1. Epitheliomuscular cells
    • 2. Interstitial cells
    • 3. Gland cells
  145. Produce cnidoblasts, sex cells, buds, nerve cells, and other cells besides the epitheliomuscular cells.
    Interstitial cells
  146. Secrete the adhesive for attachment and gas bubbles for detachment.
    Gland cells
  147. Inner layer formed from the endoerm.
  148. A jellylike material which separates the two cell layers.
    Mesoglea (layer not a tissue)
  149. What are Cnidarians (in regards to acquiring food)?
    All are carnivores that capture their food.
  150. What do Cnidarians feed on?
    • 1. Small crustaceans
    • 2. Insect larvae
    • 3. Annelid worms
  151. What are discharged when Cnidarians are acquiring food?
    Nematocysts are discharged (propelled by osmotic pressure) throwing tiny barbs with small poison sacs into the victim causing paralysis.
  152. What do the tentacles do when Cnidarians are acquiring food?
    Push the victim into the hydra's mouth and into the hollow body where food digestion takes place.
  153. What chemical is released when Cnidarians are acquiring food?
    Glutathione (found in all living cells to some extent) is released from wounds in the prey. Animals releasin enought will induce a feeding response.
  154. Secrete digestive enzymes that partly break down prey.
    Gastrodermal cells
  155. Take in partially digested food, completing digestion.
    Lining cells
  156. Hollow internal space where digestion takes place extracellularly.
    Gastrovascular cavity (coelenteron)
  157. How is extracellular digestion an evolutionary advance?
    You can eat morea nd you can eat bigger food.
  158. What has no brain or nervous system?
    Phylum Cnidaria
  159. Specialized cells react to a stimuli, the stiumulus travels to other cells through a series of interconnecting nerve cells called...
    A nerve net.
  160. What does the nerve net lie in?
    The mesoglea
  161. Where may the nerve net be found at?
    The base of the epidermis and gastrodermis.
  162. What is unique about the nerve net when compared to other animals?
    Can send impulses in both directions on the same nerve.
  163. What do many of the synapses (nerve cell junctions) have in Cnidarians?
    Vesicles of neurotransmitters on both sides allowing transmission across the synapse in either direction.
  164. What do Cnidarians also lack?
    Myelin (sheathing material) on the axons.
  165. Even though there is no real central nervous system in Cnidarians...
    Nerves are somewhat grouped.
  166. Since the nerve cells have junctions with the epitheliomuscular cells and nematocysts, combined with contractile fibers, they are often called what?
    The neuromuscular system.
  167. What are sensory cells equipped with in Cnidarians?
    Flagella for receptors of chemical and tactile stimuli.
  168. What kind of reproduction do Cnidarians have?
    • 1. Asexual
    • 2. Sexual
  169. What are the two types of asexual reproduction in Cnidarians?
    • 1. Budding
    • 2. Regeneration
  170. A small outgrowth of epidermis and gastrodermis which develops tentacles and separates.
  171. Ability to regrow missing parts.
  172. Occurs through the fertilization of eggs and sperm.
  173. What are the different classes of Cnidarians?
    • 1. Class Hydrozoa
    • 2. Class Anthozoa
    • 3. Class Scyphozoa
    • 4. Class Cubozoa
  174. Hydra and Physalia (Portugese man-of-war)
    Class Hydrozoa
  175. What is the habitat of class hydrozoa?
    Mostly marine.
  176. How do class hydrozoa live?
    A solitary life, others live in colonies.
  177. How do class hydrozoa reproduce?
    By asexual buds (polyp) and/or a sexual medusa which forms gametes.
  178. Where can hydra be found?
    In freshwater ponds, lakes, and streams.
  179. Where do hydra attach themselves to?
    Rocks or water plants.
  180. How do hydra attach themselves to rocks or water plants?
    With the sticky secretions from cells of their basal disks.
  181. How can hydra move?
    By somersaulting.
  182. How many species of Hydra are in North America?
  183. When does reproduction of hydra occur?
    Usually occurs in the fall.
  184. Most species of Hydra have different sexes, meaning they are...
  185. Where are eggs produced in Hydra?
    Along the body wall in ovaries.
  186. Where do mobile pserm form in Hydra?
    Swellings of the body wall called testes.
  187. Where is the egg fertilized in Hydra?
    The ovary.
  188. Describe the process of reproduction in hydra.
    Zygote grows, divides into a ball of cells with a protective cover, leaves the parent, goes through a rest period (usually winter), develops into a new hydra.
  189. Portugese man-of-war.
  190. What is the float called in physalia?
    A pneumatophore
  191. Expanded, gas filled sac.
  192. What is the man-of-war actually?
    A colony of cnidarians living together.
  193. "flower animals"
    Class Anthozoa
  194. What are examples of class anthozoa?
    Coral, sea anemones.
  195. What is the habitat of class anthozoa?
    All marine.
  196. How do class anthozoa live?
    Solitary or in colonies.
  197. Is there a medusa stage in class anthozoa?
  198. How many germ layers do class anthozoa have?
    All three (mesoderm develops into muscle).
  199. How do coral most live?
    In colonies.
  200. What does the epidermis at the base of the column in coral secrete?
    A limy skeletal cup. They can retract into their cup when not feeding for protection.
  201. How do coral reefs build up over time?
    Skeletons of lime are formed and they cement their own skeleton to the skeleton of the polyp next to them.
  202. Near the beach, smaller.
    Marginal or fringing reef.
  203. Larger, near the beach, creates a barrier of waves creating a large biomass and a calm shore.
    Barrier reef
  204. Coral reef that forms deeper in the water, ring with life in the middle.
  205. What size is the gastrovascular cavity in sea anemones?
    Large, and is partitioned by septa or mesenteries (inward extensions of the body wall).
  206. What does the mesoglea contain in sea anemones?
    Ameboid cells.
  207. Found in the mesoglea, they are separating walls that increase the surface area of the gastrovascular cavity.
    Septa (muscle band)
  208. What does the mouth lead into in sea anemones?
    A pharynx, which leads to the gastrovascular cavity.
  209. What has well developed muscles and are carnivorous?
    Sea Anemones
  210. Name some symbiotic relationships that sea anemones have.
    Clown fish, anemone fish, damsel fish all produce mucus skin that makes them immune from the anemone's sting. Fish provide bait & water flow to anemone, anemone protects fish from predators. Mutualistic relationship. Hermit crab holds anemone on back, anemone gets food, crab gets camoflage. Mutalistic.
  211. Sea nettle and jellyfish.
    Class scyphozoa
  212. What is the habitat of class scyphozoa?
    Mostly marine.
  213. What is the body form of class scyphozoa?
    Mostly medusa, hydra only present as part of reproductive cycle.
  214. Where are most of the larger jellyfishes found?
    Class Scyphozoa
  215. How big do Class Scyphozoa get?
    May attain a diameter of more than 2m with tentacles 60-70m long. Most are from 2 to 40 cm in diameter.
  216. What colors do class scyphozoa exhibit?
    Various colors and various shaped bells.
  217. How is the mesoglea in class scyphozoa?
    Usually thick and is about 95% water.
  218. What do Class Scyphozoa have?
    Ameboid cells and fibers in their mesoglea.
  219. How is movement made in class scyphozoa?
    Pulsations of the bell or umbrella.
  220. How are tentacles in class scyphozoa?
    May vary in number and may be short or long.
  221. What is the margin of the umbrella scalloped with?
  222. What is at each indentation?
    A pair of lappets (lobes) which have sense organs called rhopalium between them.
  223. What are the two types of rhopalium?
    • 1) statocysts
    • 2) ocelli
  224. Sensory cells that detect gravity and aid in equilibrium.
  225. Sensory cells that detect light so they can remain in shallow water.
  226. Large tube that functions as an extension of the mouth.
  227. What does the manubrium usually form?
    4 frilly arms on the oral side. They are used in capturing and ingesting prey.
  228. What do tentacles, manubrium, and sometimes the body surface have?
    Nematocysts for capturing prey.
  229. What does food pass through in class scyphozoa?
    Passed into the gastrovascular activity.
  230. Why do cilia in the gastrodermis circulate water?
    To move in food and O2 into the stomach and to expel wastes.
  231. What do schyphozoans have?(nervous system wise)
    A nerve net.
  232. Are sexes seperate in class scyphozoa?
  233. How is fertilization in class scyphozoa?
  234. Where are gonads located in?
    The gastric pouches.
  235. Reproduction in class scyphozoa.
    • 1) Sperm are carried by currents to the gastric pouches of females.
    • 2) The zygote develops into a ciliated planula larlarva that settles and becomes a hydralike form.
    • 3) Through repeated linear budding (strobillation) saucerlike buds (ephyrae) form.
    • 4) When they break loose they become mature jellyfish.
  236. Cube jellyfishes.
    Class cubozoa
  237. Medusa is predominant in this class.
    Class cubozoa
  238. How are the bells in class cubozoa?
    Almost square with groups of tentacles at each corner.
  239. Is the umbrella margin scalloped?
  240. Can the stings of some class cubozoa be fatal?
    Yes, to humans.
  241. What do the polyps metamorphose directly into in class cubozoa?
Card Set
Phylums Porifera and Cnidaria
Zoology Test #2: Chapters 12 and 13: Porifera and Cnidaria
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