Biology 11 - Plants.txt

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  1. Alternation of generations:
    • 1. Haploid gametophyte produces male or female gametes (n) by mitosis.
    • 2. Male gamete fertilizes female and they form a zygote which grows into a sporophyte (2n).
    • 4. Diploid sporophyte produces spores (n) by meiosis.
    • 5. Spore grows into gametophyte (n).
  2. Major plant kingdom divisions:
    • Non-Vascular Plants (bryophytes)
    • Vascular Plants (tracheophytes)
    • - Seedless Plants (pteridophytes)
    • - Plants with Seeds (spermatophytes)
    • - Naked Seeds (gymnosperms)
    • - Enclosed Seeds (angiosperms)
    • - Monocotyledons
    • - Dicotyledons
  3. Mosses
    • Byrophytes:
    • Nonvascular - Embryophytes.
    • Rhizoids instead of developed roots.
    • Diverse environments such as bog, tundra, exposed rock, and deep shade.
    • Help initiate soil-formation and used as fuel.
  4. Liverworts
    • Hepatophytes:
    • Grow flat and close to the ground.
    • Rarely more than 30 cells thick.
  5. Hornworts
    • Anthocerophytes:
    • Horn-like structures jutting from their base.
  6. Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts are restricted in size because:
    They lack a vascular system to move water, nutrients, and sugars.
  7. Seedless Vascular Plants (ferns and reletives)
    • Pteridophytes
    • Vascular tissue allows them to grow tall (upto 10m).
    • Spores dispersed by wind.
    • Sporophyte generation is dominant stage while gametophite generation is tiny and short lived.
    • Gametes require water to fertilize @sp? because male gametes swim with flagella.
  8. Types of plant vascular tissue:
    • Xylem - Dead cells that conduct water and dissolved minerals absorbed by the roots.
    • Phloem - Living tube cells and companion cells that conduct sugars produced in the leaves.
  9. Vascular plant parts:
    • Roots - penetrate soil to anchor plant and reach water.
    • Leaves - provide a large surface area for photosynthesis.
    • Stems - rigid tissues that raise and support the leaves.
  10. Seed functions:
    • Allow sexual reproduction away from water.
    • Provide protection against environmental conditions.
  11. Cones:
    • Male - Pollen Cones:
    • microspore mother cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid pollen grains.

    • Female - Seed Cones
    • In each ovule a megaspore mother undergoes meiosis producing one megaspore.
    • Pollen traped in sticky sap secreted by female cone fertilize megaspore to form diploid zygote.
    • Zygote grows into embryo inside ripened ovule which is now called a seed.
    • Naked seeds fall out of cone but may take years to become a mature cone producing plant.
  12. Seed leaves:
    • Cotyledons.
    • 1 - Monocot
    • 2 - Dicot
  13. Angiosperms
    • "Vessel Seeds"
    • 90% of plant species.
    • Fruit and flowers attract animals disperse seeds and carry pollen.
  14. Fruit
    The fertilized ovary of an angiosperm.
  15. How flowers work @Picture@
    • In the anther chambers microspore mother cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid pollen grains.
    • In the ovule megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis to produce one megaspore.
    • Wind, insects, birst, or bats transfer pollen to sticky surface of the stigma.
    • Self-pollination if pollen is from the same plant or cross-pollination if it is from a different plant.
    • Fertilized zygote developes into an embryo in the ripened ovule which is now called a seed.
    • the ovary and other surrounding parts develope into a fruit enclosing the seed.
  16. Grafting
    • Asexually produces plants with desired characteristics by physically joining different plants so they grow as one.
    • Scion: Shoot of grafted plant.
    • Root stock: Root of grafted plant.
    • Only closely related plants that have a cambium can be grafted.
  17. Ecological succession
    • The process whereby a community of plants in an area gradually change over time.
    • This can be promoted by forest fires and severe storms.
    • These changes do not follow a predictable sequence.
    • If the plant community becomes stable it is called a climax community.
    • Plant communities rarely remain stable for long.
  18. Primary succession
    • Only occurs in areas where there was no revious plant community.
    • Pioneer spore producing plants such as lichens create soil.
    • Moving from this to a forest takes thousands of years.
  19. Secondary succession
    • Occurs when a plant community is disturbed (by fire, storm, or human activity for example)
    • Vascular seed producing plants return without needing pioneer species.
    • A forest may develop in as little as 100 years
  20. Chloroplast Structure:
    Image Upload 1
  21. Stomata:
    • Stomata are openings allowing CO2 and H2O vapour to enter plant leaves.
    • A stoma is formed between two guard cells.
    • Durring the day water enters the guard cells causing them to swell and bend opening the stoma.
    • At night water leaves the guard cells and the stoma closes to prevent water loss.
  22. Image Upload 2
    Image Upload 3
  23. Leaf Cuticle
    • Outermost layer of leaf.
    • Prevents water evaporating.
  24. Leaf Epidermis Tissue
    • Protection.
    • No photosynthesis.
  25. Leaf Mesophyll
    • Palisade Parenchyma
    • - Lots of chloroplasts for photosynthesis
    • - Lots of mitochondria for cellular respiration

    • Spongy Parenchyma
    • - Loosely packed cells.
    • - Spaces between cells store H2O vapour, O2, and CO2 for photosynthesis.
  26. Leaf Vascular Bundles
    • Made up of xylem and phloem.
    • Form veins that deliver water and nutrients throughout leaf.
  27. Leaf Guard Cells
    • Found in lower epidermis of leaf.
    • Open and close stomata to control flow of gases and vapours in and out of leaf.
  28. Water Movement in Plants
    • Transpiration:
    • Water enters plants though root system.
    • Water drawn up plant by cohesion and adhesion.
    • Cohesion: negative oxygen in one water molecule attracts the positive hydrogen in another.
    • Adhesion: water molecules stick to xylem walls.
    • Water exits leaves through stomata.
  29. Photosynthesis Reaction
    • Light triggers an electron transport mechanism.
    • Water is the electron provider for photosysthesis.
    • Oxygen is a by-product.
    • Carbon dioxide is incorporated into molecules that eventually become sugar.
  30. Glucose in Plants
    • Manufactured in the cytoplasm.
    • Transported in phloem.
    • Used by mitochondria to make ATP (for energy transfer)
    • Excess stored as sugar in fruit or as starch in roots.
  31. Equations for Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
    • Photosynthesis
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2

    • Cellular Respiration
    • C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
  32. Leaf Adaptations
    • Bulb (thick fleshy leaf scales)
    • - Food storage
    • - Onion

    • Spines (sharp, woody, non-photosynthetic)
    • - Defense, Water Retention
    • - Cactus

    • Floral Bracts
    • - Attracting pollinators
    • - Paper flower

    • Insect Trap
    • - Venus fly trap
  33. Shoot Adaptations
    • Phylloclade / Cladode (stem that looks and acts as leaf)
    • - Photosynthesis
    • - Butchers broom.

    • Rhizome (thick underground stem grows horizontally)
    • - Storage
    • - Ginger

    • Corm (short swollen vertical stem of several nodes at or below ground)
    • - Storage
    • - Crocus

    • Tendril
    • - Climbing and support
    • - Grape vine
  34. Root Adaptations
    • Aerial Roots
    • - Absorb water from rain or mist
    • - Opiphytic orchid

    • Pneumatophores (air-breathing roots with air spaces connected to submerged roots)
    • - Aeration
    • - Mangrove
  35. Plant Epidermal Tissue
    • Produces the cuticle which:
    • - protects against infection
    • - prevents water loss
    • - restricts gas exchange.
    • In plants with secondary growth epidermis is replaced by periderm (bark).
  36. Plant Ground Tissue
    • Parenchyma - Storage and photosynthesis.
    • Collenchyma - Flexible support (growing).
    • Sclerenchyma - Inflexible tough support (not elongating).
  37. Plant Vascular Tissue
    • Xylem
    • Cells are dead at maturity.
    • - Tracheids - narrow angled end walls.
    • - Vessel elements - wider, somtimes lack end walls entirely, only found in angiosperms.
    • Image Upload 4
    • Phloem
    • Transport glucose from leaves to other parts of plant
    • - Sieve tube cells - no nuclei, separated by sieve plates.
    • - Companion cells - control functions of sieve tube cells.
    • Image Upload 5
  38. Vascular Tissue Arrangement
    • Monocot
    • Stem - vascular bundles scattered through stem. No cambium.

    • Dicot
    • Stem - vascular bundles in a ring with xylem and phloem seporated by cambium which produces more of both.
    • Image Upload 6
    • Image Upload 7
Card Set
Biology 11 - Plants.txt
Biology 11 - Plants
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