Anatomy & Physiology

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Anatomy & Physiology
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2012-01-12 22:20:08
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  1. Energy from the oxidation of foodstuffs is applied to the synthesis of _.
    ATP
  2. General chemical energy source for energy-requiring cellular processes is _.
    ATP
  3. Energy from the _ is applied to they synthesis of ATP.
    oxidation of foodstuffs
  4. ATP is the general chemiccal energy source for _.
    energy-requiring cellular processes
  5. Energy from oxidation of foodstuffs is applied to the synthesis of ATP in _.
    oxidative phosphorylation
  6. ADP is the _ of ATP.
    energy-depleted form
  7. Major functions of the skin include:
    • Protection
    • Thermoregulation
    • Somatosensory perception
    • Vitamin D synthesis
  8. Skin cell types are:
    • Keratinocytes
    • Melanocytes
    • Immunocytes
  9. Keratinocytes are responsible for _.
    • wear-resistance
    • waterproof qualities
  10. Active Transport
    Involves the expenditure of extra energy from the cell's own energy reserves. Result in net movement of solute uphill against a concentration gradient.
  11. Antiport
    One solute may be exchanged for another in a process of exchange.
  12. Carriers
    Proteins that actually bind individual solute molecules on one side of the membrane and release the solute on the opposite side of the membrane.
  13. Channels
    Barrel-shaped pores that enclose a small water-filled passage through which solutes diffuse as if in free solution.
  14. Cotransport
    Multiple solues of differenttypes may need to bind to the carrier before all are translocated.
  15. Diffusion
    Movement of a substance due to the randome movement of its individual particles.
  16. Diffusion coefficient
    Factor that determines the rate of net movement of a substance by diffusion.
  17. Diffusion potential
    Charge separation generated by this process can be measured as an electrical voltage between the two chambers.
  18. Effectors
    Changes the regulated variable in the direction of the setpoint.
  19. Enzymes
    Proteinaceous substances. Essential to life by acting like catalysts in promoting at the cell temperature usually reversible reactions.
  20. Equilibrium potential
    Magnitude of the equilibrium potential (E) is directly related to the magnitude of the concentration gradient, since one must balance the other.
  21. Isotonic
    Solutions in which the osmotic concentration of the cytoplasm is approximately 300 mOsmoles/liter.
  22. Ligand-gated channels
    Respond to the binding of messenger substances from inside or outside the cell.
  23. Na+/K+ pump
    Splits 1 ATP, mediates ejection of 3 Na+ from the cell in exchange for 2 K+ moved from outside to in.
  24. Synaptic transmission
    Chemical signals between neurons and neurons or between neurons and muscle cells.
  25. Voltage-gated channels
    Respond to changes in membrane potential.
  26. Allosteric phosphorylation
    Attachment of a phosphate group [PO4] at a specific site on the protein by another enzyme, kinase.
  27. Allosteric regulation
    Activity of an enzyme can be regulated by phosphorylation.
  28. Anabolism
    Energy captured in catabolic processes is used to assemble simple molecules from food into the proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and other macromolecules needed for cellular growth and maintenance.
  29. Atomic number
    • Number of protons in the nucleus.
    • Establishes the chemical identity of the atom.
  30. Atomic weight
    Sum of the numbe of protons and neutrons in its nucleus.
  31. Catabolism
    • Reactions in which the cell extracts energy from chemical sources in the environment.
    • Reactions that convert complex molecules from the food into simple ones that can be used to construct new molecules.
  32. Cellular respiration
    • Oxidation process:
    • ATP used in cellular activities is rapidly regenerated by the cell's energy metabolism.
  33. Chemical bond
    Forms when there is interaction between the orbitals of the outermost energy levels of two atoms.
  34. Chemical reactions
    • Processes that form or break chemical bonds.
    • Results in the formation of new compounds.
  35. Compound
    Substances composed of molecules of the same type.
  36. Dehydration reaction
    Removal of H+ from one reactant and OH- from the other allows formation of molecules of water and bond between the two reactants, creating disaccharides from monosaccharides.
  37. Dipole
    Atoms connected by a polar bond.
  38. Electrolytes
    • Compounds
    • Incorporate ionic bonds that are typically separated into their component ions in water solution.
  39. Haploid
    Reproductive cell that has 22 somatic chromosomes and either an X or a Y chromosome.
  40. Hydrogen bonds
    Result of fact that hydrogen-nitrogen and hydrogen-oxygen bonds are polar covalent.
  41. Inducers
    • Remove repressors
    • Prevent repressors from binding to DNA.
  42. Ionic bond
    Formed when an element readily gives up electrons reacts with an element that readily accepts them.
  43. Isoform
    • Exist in multiple forms with different enzymatic properties.
    • Products of separate genes.
  44. Isomer
    Different orms of molecules with the same chemical formula.
  45. Isotope
    Different forms of the same element having the same number of protons but differing in the number or neutrons.
  46. Isozyme
    Exist in multiple forms with different enzymatic properties.
  47. Molarity
    Number of grams of solute per liter of water, divided by the solute's molecular weight.
  48. Molecular weight
    Total of all of the atomic weights of its components expressed in grams.
  49. Posttranscriptional processing
    • First step in gene expression.
    • DNA unwound, complementary strand of mRNA assembled using 1 strand as template. Catalyzed by RNA polymerase.
  50. Posttranslational processing
    Parts of the amino acid sequence are clipped off or two or more polypeptides are attached together to form a functional complex.
  51. Primary sequence
    Order of amino acids in the protein chain.
  52. Primary transcript
    Working copies of individual sentences that are made in the form of a single strand of comlementary mRNA.
  53. Products
    In a chemical reaction, elements or compounds that were not present in that form initially.
  54. Quaternary structure
    Fully structured proteins that may associate with one another to form functional units.
  55. Redox reaction
    • Oxidation-reduction.
    • One atom donates one or more electrons to another atom.
    • Donor atom becomes oxidized.
    • Recipient becomes reduced.
  56. Secondary structure
    Established by folding, coiling, or pleating the chain at particular regions of the primary sequence to form motifs.
  57. Signal sequence
    Causes mRNA to attach itself to the ER.
  58. Solubility coefficient
    Measure of the max amount of a substace that can be held in solution.
  59. Stereoisomers
    Variant forms of molecules that differ in the orientation of a key functional group.
  60. Substrates
    Enzyme's reactants
  61. Transfer RNA
    Recognizes particular amino acids and adds them to the growing polypeptide chain.
  62. Acetabulum
    At the point of the fusion of three the ilium, ischium, and pubis in which a deep socket articulates with the head of the femur.
  63. Acromion
    Posterior surface of the scapula bears a prominent spine that widens at its lateral end to form an articulation with the clavicle.
  64. Annulus fibrosus
    Outer tough part of the intervertebral discs.
  65. Anterior fontanel
    Point at which the coronol suture unites with the sagittal suture.
  66. Bilateral pedicles
    • Project posteriorly from the centurm.
    • Support the 2 superior and 2 inferior articular processes.
  67. Bregma
    Point at which the coronal suture unites with the sagittal suture.
  68. Calcaneus
    Forms the heel.
  69. Calcitonin
    • Thyroid secretion.
    • Protects against increases in plasma Ca++ by stimulating bone formation.
  70. Capitulum
    One of two condyles at the distal end of the humerus that articulates with the radius.
  71. Centrum
    Depression in which the intervertebral disc rests.
  72. Coracoid process
    • Attachment of the biceps muscle.
    • Attachment for ligaments that bind the clavicle to the scapula.
  73. Cruciate igaments
    Connect the medial meniscus with the medial epicondyle.
  74. Endosteum
    Membrane containing osteoblasts and osteoprogenitor cells.
  75. Glenoid cavity
    Joint with the humerus of the arm.
  76. Interosseous membrane
    Flat ligament that binds the radius and the ulna.
  77. Intertubercular groove
    Serves as a guide for a tendon of the biceps muslce that attaches at the rim of the glenoid cavity.
  78. Jugular notch
    Located in the center of the superior edge of the manubrium section of the sternum.
  79. Lambda
    • At the juncture of the lambdoidal and sagittal sutures.
    • Formd when this fontanel closes.
  80. Lamina
    • Extends toward the midline from each articular process.
    • Forms a roof over the vertebral foramen.
  81. Lateral condyle
    With the medial condyle of the tibia, articulates with those of the femur to form the knee joint.
  82. Manubrium
    Superior section of the sternum.
  83. Nucleus pulposus
    • Within the intervertebral discs.
    • Soft interior surrounded by a tough outer annulus fibrosus.
  84. Perichondrium
    Membranous capsule that surrounds most cartilaginous structures.
  85. Periosteum
    Membrane surrounding the bone.
  86. Posterior fontanel
    Exists at the juncture of lambdoidal and sagittal sutures.
  87. Three types of cartilage:
    • Hyaline
    • Fibrous
    • Elastic
  88. Categories of joints:
    • Fibrous
    • Cartilagionous
    • Synovial
  89. In fibrous joints, the bones are _.
    bound tightly together.
  90. Absolute refractory period
    • Early in the refractory period.
    • Period of restimulation is effectively impossible.
  91. Acetylcholine
    • Neurotransmitter.
    • Interacts with receptors on the muscle fiber to initiate an action potential.
  92. Actin
    • Protein component of the sarcomere.
    • Thin polymerized filaments in the contractile machinery.
  93. Action potential
    Rapid, brief changes in the membrane potential of a neuron or muscle cell.
  94. Active tension
    Determined by subtracting the predetermined passive tension curve from the total tension curve.
  95. Agonists
    Muscles that are responsible for a particular movement.
  96. Alpha actinin
    Attaches thin filaments to Z disc and determines their spacing.
  97. Aponeurosis
    Connective tissue extends beyond the muscle to form a sheet-like aponeurosis.
  98. Contractile macinery
    Consists of thin filaments composed of polymerized actin and thick filaments composed of aggregations of myosin.
  99. Contractile proteins
    • Actin
    • Myosin
  100. Convergent
    When the arrangement of the fascicle converge from a broad origin toward a tendon so that the muscle has a fan shape.
  101. Creatine phosphokinase
    Enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from CrP to ADP and from ATP to Cr.
  102. Crossbridges
    • Attachents made by myosinheads to actin binding sites.
    • Generate force during muscle contraction.
  103. Dense bodies
    • Attaches some of the network of actin thin filament within the interior of smooth muscle cells.
    • Equivalent of the Z disc in striated muscle.
  104. Endomysium
    Layer of connective tissue that wraps each individual muscle fber.
  105. Excitation-contraction coupling
    Results in a detectable mechanical response of the muscle, as the action potential sweeps across the muscle cell surface.
  106. Fascicles
    Bundles of fibers enclosed in connective tissue sheaths of perimysium.
  107. Fast twitch
    • Type II.
    • Skeletal muscle fibers.
    • Expresses a myosin that cycles more rapidly than that expressed by Type I fibers.
  108. Graded strength principle
    Force delivered by a muscle may increase in proportion to the intensity of the stimulus delivered to its motor nerve.
  109. Intercalated discs
    Make durable end-to-end connections between the plasma membrane of adjacent fibers in cardiac muscle.
  110. Isometric contraction
    • Muscle is not allowed to shorten.
    • Tension does develop in the muscle.
  111. Isotonic contraction
    Muscle is allowed to shorten and lift a load.
  112. Latent period
    Measurable delay between muscle excitation and the onset of tension development or shortening in the muscle.
  113. Length-tension curve
    Curve shows that the active tension is maximal when the muscle is near its rest length.
  114. Multiunit smooth muscle
    • Muscle not connected by gap junctins.
    • Typically not spontaneously active.
  115. Muscle triad
    Formed by T tubules lying between two terminal cisternae
  116. Myosin
    • Protein component of the sarcomere.
    • Aggregations of thick filaments in the contractile machinery.
  117. Myosin light-chain kinase
    • MLCK
    • Enzyme that phosphorylates a portion of the myosin head.
  118. Nebulin
    • Structural protein.
    • Associated with thin filaments.
    • Molecular yardstic.
    • LImits the length of thin filaments.
  119. Nodal fibers
    • Within heart muscle.
    • Spontaneously active.
    • Serve as pacemakers for the entire heart.
  120. Operating range
    • Optimal range of contractile performance.
    • Created by the leverage arrangements imposed by the skeleton that restricts muscle lengths.
  121. Oxygen debt
    Sustained increase in oxygen uptake that follows exercise.
  122. Pacemakers
    Some heart muscle fibers that are spontaneously active.
  123. Passive tension
    Curve of passive tension has a value of zera at rest length and rises as the length is made greater than rest lengthe.
  124. Pharmacomechanical route
    • Second messages set in motion by autonomic transmitters.
    • Control release of Ca++ from the intracellular stores without involvement of a change in membrane potential.
  125. Pink fibers
    • Slowly fatiguing Type IIa fibers.
    • Contains some myoglobin.
  126. Power stroke
    Rotation of the head that applies force to the thin filament.
  127. Red fibers
    Type I fibers that are red color due to myoglobin.
  128. Refractory period
    Follows each action potential.
  129. Relative refractory period
    More difficult to restimulate the muscle.
  130. Rest length
    Skeletal muscles that are removed from the body assume a standard length.
  131. Sarcomere
    Basic functional unit of the contractile machinery of striated muscle.
  132. Sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • SR
    • Site within the cell where Ca++ is stored.
  133. Series elastic elements
    • Stretch components.
    • Part of the contractile machinery.
  134. Single-unit smooth muscle
    • Contains extensive gap junction connections.
    • Makes possible for large number of neighboring cells to contract simultaneously as if they were one unit.
  135. Slow twitch
    • Type 1.
    • Skeletal muscle fibers.
    • Expresses a myosin that cycles less rapidly than that expressed by Type II fibers.
  136. Somatic branch
    Branch of motor system that controls skeletal muscle.
  137. Spatia summation
    Force summation in muscle generated by newly added motor units to increase fore production summates with the force produced by the units already active.
  138. Structural proteins:
    • Protein components of sarcomeres:
    • Nebulin
    • Titin
    • CapZ
    • Alpha actinin
  139. Temporal summation
    • In muscle contraction.
    • Muscle restimulated within a few tens of msec, force or shortening generated in second twitch can summate, making a stepwise increase in tension or decrease in length.
  140. Terminal cisternae
    Formed by SR near the Z disc of each sarcomere.
  141. Tetanus
    Smooth rise in muscle tension or decrease in length resulting from the further reduction of the interval between successive impulses.
  142. Thin filaments
    Double strands of polymerized actin.
  143. Titin
    • Connects ends of thick filaments to Z disc.
    • Prevents sarcomeres from falling apart.
    • Responsibe for the series elastic properties of muscle.
  144. Transverse tubules
    • Finger-like projection of plasma membrane.
    • Project into the interior of the muscle fiber.
    • Pass close to each terminal cisterna.
  145. Voltage sensors
    • Protein components of the endfeet.
    • Sense the action potentia passing along the T tubule.
  146. White fibers
    • Rapidly fatiguing Type IIb fibers.
    • Contains some myoglobin.
  147. Z discs
    • Part of the contractile machinery of the muscle.
    • Thin filaments are attached.
  148. First class lever
    • Effort -- Fulcrum -- Load
    • Load arm shorter than effort arm: mechanical advantage.
  149. Second class lever
    • Effort -- Load -- Fulcrum
    • Closer the load to the fulcrum: greater mechanical advantage.
  150. Third class lever
    • Load -- Effort -- Fulcrum
    • Disadvantage increases with the length of the load arm.
  151. Regulatory proteins:
    • Tropomyosin
    • Troponin
  152. Tropomyosin
    • Lies along the thin filament.
    • Controls myosin access to actin binding sites.
    • Regulatory protein.
  153. Troponin
    • Ca++ binding potein.
    • Attached to thin filament at intervals.
    • Switches tropomyosin away from actin binding sites, permitting interaction between actinand myosin.
    • Regulatory protein.
  154. Crossbridges are attachments made by _.
    myosin heads to actin binding sites.
  155. Abducens
    Cranial nervethat innervates the muscle that abducts the eye.
  156. Adrenal medulla
    • Endocrine glands.
    • Modified sympathetic ganglia.
  157. Aftehyperpolarization phase
    Membrane potential is even more inside negative than at rest.
  158. Anterior commissure
    • Smaler and less important fiber tracts.
    • Connct corresponding parts of the right and left halves of te CNS.
  159. Anterior spinocerebellar tracts
    • Located within the spinocerebellar pathway.
    • Carry info from muscle and joint receptors to the cerebellum.
  160. Association areas
    • In the cerebral cortex.
    • Forms unified picture of the sensory world.
    • Associates key elements of it with the resources of past experiences.
    • Formulates complex behaviors.
  161. Astrocytes
    • Class of glial cells in the CNS.
    • Control composition and volume of fluid microenvironmen that surrounds centrl neurons.
  162. Autonomic nervous system
    • Part of the PNS.
    • Supplies motor innervation to the viscera.
  163. Caudate nucleus
    • Islands of neuronal cell bodies in the central white matter.
    • Control movement.
  164. Central canal
    • Crossbar of the H.
    • Central commissure.
    • Contains the hollow central canal.
  165. Central commissure
    Crossbar of the H.
  166. Cerebellum
    Coordinates and smooth body movements, particularly rapid ones.
  167. Cerebral aqueduct
    • Connects 3rd and 4th ventricles.
    • Runs through midbrain.
    • Divides it into a dorsal tectum and paired ventral cerebral peduncles.
  168. Cerebral peduncles
    Structures found in the 4th ventricle.
  169. Chemical synapse
    Axon terminal releases specific neurotransmitter chemical that acts on the plasma membrane, either to excite or inhibit electrical activity in the recipient cell.
  170. Choroid plexus
    Membrane attached to the roots of the four ventricles that secretes CSF.
  171. Commissures
    Fiber tracts that connect corresponding parts of the right and left halves of the CNS.
  172. Convergent
    Several pathways, possibly carrying different types of info, may make synapses on the same neurons.
  173. Corpus collosum
    Major commissure
  174. Cortex
    Bulk of gray matter in the brain.
  175. Decremental threshold
    Stimulation of the dendrites results in local depolarizaton that decreases in intensity as it travels through the dendrites to the cell body.
  176. Diencephalon
    • Division of the prosencephalon.
    • Contains the thalamus and hypothalamus.
  177. Direct corticospinal pathway
    • Pyramidal tracts.
    • Carry axons in the motor cortex that traverse the cord without synapsing until they reach neurons in the spinal segments.
  178. Dorsal column pathway
    • In the posterior funiculus.
    • Occupies wedge-shaped sector of the medial posterior cord.
    • Carrie info about fine touch and pressure sensations.
  179. Dorsal root ganglions
    Contains cell bodies of somatic sensory afferents.
  180. Endoneurium
    Encloses each axon.
  181. Ependymal cells
    Class of glial cells in the CNS.
  182. Epineurium
    Sheath that encloses the entire peripheral nerve.
  183. EPSP
    • Postsynaptic potentials.
    • Increase likelihood that postsynaptic cell will initiate action potential at the axon hillock.
  184. Extrapyramidal tracts
    • Originate in brain stem nuclei.
    • Receive input from basal nuclei and cerebellum.
    • Control muscles of the axial skeleton.
    • Mediate less finely controlled movements of the trunk.
  185. Fourth ventricle
    • The hindbrain.
    • Connected to the 3rd ventricle by the cerebral aqueduct.
  186. G protein
    • Membrane protein.
    • Short for GTP-binding protein.
    • Consists of 3 subunits designated alpha, beta, and gamma.
  187. General association area
    • Large parts of the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes.
    • Critical for integrating multiple modes of sensory info into a comprehensive understanding of a situation.
  188. General somatic senses
    • Touch, temp, pain.
    • Muscle, tendon, and joint receptors that give info about position and movement of the body in space.
  189. Glia
    Supporting cells of the nervous system.
  190. Glossopharyngeal
    • Cranial mixed nerve.
    • Serves part of the tongue and throat.
    • Carries gustatory afferents from posterior tongue and afferents from carotid body and carotid sinus.
  191. Gray ramus
    • Medial spinal nerve branch.
    • Connects base of each ventral ramus to corresponding sympathetic chain ganglion.
    • Part of sympathetic branch of the autonomic motor system.
  192. Guanylyl cyclase
    Converts guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP).
  193. Gyri (gyrus)
    Ridges that are created by folding of the cortex as it grows.
  194. Homunculus
    Map of the cortex representing the body surface.
  195. IPSP
    Postsynaptic potentials that tend to decrease the likelihood that the postsynaptic cell will initiate an action potential at the axon hillock.
  196. Hypoglossal
    • Cranial nerve.
    • Innervates muscles of the tongue.
  197. Inferior hypogastric ganglia
    One of four major unpaired prevertebral ganglia located in the abdomen and pelvis.
  198. Inferior mesenteric ganglia
    One of four major unpaired prevertebral ganglia located in the abdomen and pelvis.
  199. Interneurons
    • Association neurons.
    • Most numerous neurons.
    • Processes are entirely within the CNS.
    • Process info for appropriate response.
  200. Internodes
    Regular intervals in which myelinated axons are surrounded by multilayered sheaths formed by glia.
  201. Ionotropic receptors
    • Neurotransmitter receptor.
    • Ion channel.
    • Binds transmitter to ionotropic receptor.
    • Opens channel, resulting in permeability change.
  202. Lateral spinothalamic tracts
    Contains spinothalamic pathway.
  203. Lateral ventrcles
    Paired, C-shaped ventricles within the cerebral hemisphere.
  204. Longitudinal fissure
    Separates cerebrum into right and left hemispheres.
  205. Metobotropic receptor
    • Coupledto intracellular second messengers by way of G proteins.
    • May be coupled to different second messenger systems in different cell types.
  206. Metencephalon
    Cerebellum and pons portion of brain stem.
  207. Microglia
    • Cells of the nonspecific immune system.
    • Not true glia cells.
    • Form that macrophages take in the brain.
  208. Monoamine oxidase
    • Enzyme.
    • Packages for reuse or breaks down any given molecule of recovered norepi.
  209. Monosynaptic stretch reflex
    • No interneurons in the reflex arc.
    • All integration takes place at synapses of the sensory neurons on the motor neurons.
    • May be evoked by tapping on a muscle or its tendon.
  210. Myelencephalon
    Medulla oblongata portion of the brain stem.
  211. Nodes of Ranvier
    Sites in myelanted axon in which sheath is interrupted at regular intervals, leaving axonal membrane bare.
  212. Oculomotor
    • Cranial nerve.
    • Contains efferents that innervate four of the six extrinsic eye muscles and parasympathetic fibers that innervate the iris of the eye.
  213. Oligodendrytes
    • Class of glial cells in the CNS.
    • Lays down myelin sheaths that surround axons of some central neurons.
  214. Paravertebral chain ganglion
    Part of the sympathetic pathway to the effectors.
  215. Perineurium
    Wrapping that separates fascicles from one another.
  216. Plexi (plexus)
    Interlacing networks formed by the ventral rami of all spinal nerves.
  217. Polysynaptic withdrawal reflex
    • Includes one or more interneuron.
    • Results in a generalized flexion of an appendage in response to an aversive stimulus.
  218. Postcentral gyrus
    Primary somatosensory areas of the cortex.
  219. Posterior spinocerebellar tracts
    • Within the spinocerebellar pathway.
    • Carry info from muscle and joint receptors to the cerebelum.
  220. Postganglionic neuron
    • Second neuron of the autonomic pathways.
    • In the peripheral ganglion.
    • Preganglionic cell's axon synapses and then projects to an effetor in a visceral organ.
  221. Postsynaptic
    Recipient cell
  222. Postsynaptic potential
    • PSP
    • Caused by binding of transmitter to its receptor.
    • Initiates permeability change in postsynaptic cell.
  223. Precentral gyrus
    Primary motor areas of the cortex.
  224. Prefrontal cortex
    • Lies rostral to the motor areas of the precentral gyrus.
    • Activities that involve reasoning, complex learning abilities, long-term planning, judgment.
    • Mood, emotions, social behavior.
  225. Preganglionic neuon
    • First neuron of the autonomic pathway.
    • Cell body is in the CNS.
    • Axon projects to peripheral autonomic ganglion.
  226. Prevertebral ganglia
    Point at which preganglionic axon synapses on postganglionic neuron that project to effector in abdmoninal cavity.
  227. Pyramidal tracts
    Carry axons of neurons in the motor cortex that traverse the cord without synapsing until they reach neurons in the spinal segments.
  228. Rami communicante
    • Medial gray ramus and lateral white ramus connect the base of each ventral ramus to corresponding sympathetic chain ganglion.
    • Part of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic motor system.
  229. Reflex arc
    • Organization of neurons and effectors.
    • Simplest way of organizing nervous system to achieve appropriate response.
  230. Schwann cells
    • In the PNS.
    • Glial cells.
    • Myelinates CNS neurons.
  231. Somatic region
    • Region of the PNS.
    • Consists of skeletal muscles and body surface.
  232. Somatotopy
    Map-like organization of the brain.
  233. Spinocerebellar pathway
    Carries info from muscle and joint receptors to the cerebellum.
  234. Spinothalamic pathway
    • Located in anterior and lateral spinothalamic tracts.
    • Carries info about coarse touch, temp, pain sensations to primary somatosensory cortex.
  235. Sphlanchnic nerve
    Nerve that preganglionic axon follows after passing through chain ganglion without synapsing.
  236. Sulci (sulcus)
    Shallow grooves created by folding of the cortex as it grows.
  237. Sympathetic chain ganglia
    Paired series lying parallel to the spinal column on each side and connected to the vertebral rami of T1-L1 by rami communicantes.
  238. Tectum
    Roof of the cerebral aqueduct.
  239. Telencephalon
    • In the forebrain.
    • Cerebral cortex and basal nuclei.
  240. Thalamocortical fiber tracts
    Relay info from somatosensory, visual, auditory, olfactory, and gustatory sensory systems to primary processing areas in the cortex.
  241. Transverse fissure
    Separates cerebral hemisphere from the cerebellum.
  242. Trigeminal
    • Cranial nerve.
    • Contains afferents from the face.
    • Innervates masticatory muscles.
  243. Basic functions of the nervous system:
    • Collection of sensory info.
    • Form unified picture and organize appropriate response.
    • Motor output to produce response.
  244. Central nervous system consists of _.
    the brain and spinal cord
  245. Peripheral nervous system consists of _.
    spinal and cranial nerves
  246. Divisions of the PNS are:
    • Sensory
    • Motor
  247. Somatic region consists of _.
    • Skeletal muscles
    • Body surface
  248. Visceral region of PNS consists of:
    Soft internal organs of digestive system, lungs, heart, and blood vessels.
  249. Three functional categories of neurons:
    • Sensory or afferent neurons.
    • Motor or efferent neurons.
    • Interneurons or association neurons.
  250. Classes of glial cells in the CNS are:
    • Astrocytes
    • Oligodendrocytes
    • Ependymal cells
    • Microglia
  251. Ependymal cells _.
    line the fluid filled central cavity of the brain and spinal cord.
  252. Bipolar neurons are found in _.
    speical sensory systems.
  253. Unipolar neurons are found in _.
    pathways that carry info from the skin surface to the central nervous system.
  254. Multipolar neurons carry _.
    commands from CNS to effectors.
  255. Drugs that inhibit MAO _.
    increase the amount of norepi available for release, increasing efficacy of adrenergic synapses.
  256. List in order the info traveling through a reflex arc:
    • Sensory receptor.
    • Integrating center.
    • Motor neuron.
    • Effector.
  257. Prosencephalon differentiates further into the _.
    • telencephalon
    • diencephalon
  258. Rhombencephalon differentiates into the _.
    • metencephalon
    • myelencephalon
  259. Telencephalon gives rise to _.
    • cerebral cortex
    • basal nuclei
  260. Diencephalon gives rise to _.
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
  261. Mesencephalon gives rise to _.
    midbrain portion of brain stem
  262. Metencephalon gives rise to _.
    • cerebellum
    • pons portion of brainstem
  263. Myelencephalon gives rise to _.
    medulla oblongata portion of brain stem.
  264. Acetylcholine is always the transmitter _.
    at the first synapse one comes to outside the CNS.
  265. Second transmitter in the parasympathetic system is _.
    acetylcholine.
  266. Second transmitter in the sympathetic division is _.
    norepinephrine.
  267. Two types of receptors for acetylcholine in the autonomic pathways are _ and _.
    • nicotinic
    • muscarinic
  268. Nicotinic receptors are located _.
    on the postganglionic cells in both sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways.
  269. Muscarinic receptors are characteristicof _.
    effector organs served by parasympathetic system.
  270. Nicotinic receptors belong to the general category of _.
    ionotropic receptors
  271. Nicontic receptor always mediates _.
    an excitatory response.
  272. Muscarinic receptor belongs to _.
    a general family of metabotropic receptors.
  273. Transmitter released by the neurons of the sympathetic branch from their synapses on visceral effectors is _.
    norepinephrine
  274. Hormone released from the adrenal medulla that reaches visceral targets through the bloodstream is _.
    epinephrine
  275. Ampull
    Bulb-like structure at th end of each semicircular canal.
  276. Annulospiral ending
    • First type of nerveending of the stretch receptors.
    • Wraps itself around the center of a nuclear bag muscle fiber.
  277. Antigravity reflexes
    • Maintain head position vertical with respect to gravity.
    • Restore erect posture in response to a sudden tilt.
    • Maintain fixed-eye gaze when the head moves unpredictably.
  278. Maintains head position vertical with respect to gravity:
    Antigravity reflex
  279. Restore erect posture in response to a sudden tilt:
    Antigravity reflex
  280. Maintain fixed-eye gaze when the head moves unpredictably.
    Antigravity reflex
  281. Aortic bodies
    • Scattered throughout the thoracic arteries.
    • Contain chemoreceptors that are sensitive to partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood and secondarily sensitve to the acidity of the blood and the partial pressure of CO2.
  282. Aqueous humor
    • Fluid secreted by the ciliary body.
    • Reabsorbed into venous sinuses of the sclera.
  283. Auditory ossicles
    Bones that couple the tympanic membrane to the oval window.
  284. Bones that couple the tympanic membrane to the oval window:
    Auditory ossicles
  285. Auditory tube connects the _.
    middle ear cavity with the pharynx.
  286. Baroreceptors
    • Detect the stretch of arteries at strategic sites in the vascular tree.
    • Monitors arterial blood pressure.
  287. Detects the stretch of arteries at strategic sites in the vascular tree:
    baroreceptors
  288. Monitors arterial blood pressure:
    baroreceptors
  289. Basilar membrane
    Floor of the cochlear duct.
  290. Floor of the cochlear duct
    Basilar membrane
  291. Best resonant frequency
    Structures vibrate preferetially at a frequency that is determined by their physical dimensions and material composition.
  292. Bipolar cells in the eye
    Provide a direct pathway from receptors to the ganglion cells.
  293. In the eye, cells that provide a direct pathway from receptors to the ganglion cells
    Bipolar cells
  294. Carotid bodies
    • Located on the carotid sinus.
    • Contain chemoreceptors that are sensitive to the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood and secondarily sensitive to the acidity of the blood and the partial pressure of CO2.
  295. Chemoreceptors
    Monitor the chemical composition of body fluids.
  296. Monitor the chemical composition of body fluids:
    chemoreceptors
  297. Chromophore
    • In the retina.
    • Part of the photopigment that actually absorbs light energy.
  298. In the retina, part of the photopigment that actually absorbs light energy:
    chromophore
  299. Ciliary body
    Ring of tissue that supports the lens.
  300. Ring of tissue that supports the lens:
    Ciliary body
  301. Circumvallate papillae
    Taste bud projections on the tongue that form an inverted V near the back of the tongue.
  302. Taste bud projections on the tongue that form an inverted V near the back of the tongue:
    Circumvallate papillae
  303. Cochlea
    Organ of sound transduction.
  304. Organ of sound transduction:
    Cochlea
  305. Convergence
    Same retinal cell will be contributing to the message relayed by a number of ganglion cells.
  306. Function in which the same retinal cell will be contributing to the message relayed by a number of ganglion cells:
    Convergence
  307. Cornea
    Transparent structure that allows light to enter the eye.
  308. Transparent structure that allows light to enter the eye:
    Cornea
  309. Cortical microcolumn
    Neurons of the visual cortex that are arranged in six horizontal layers.
  310. Neurons of the visual cortex that are arranged in six horizontal layers:
    cortical microcolumn
  311. Dorsal cochlear nuclei
    Once the vestibuloauditory nerve enters the brain stem, the pathway branches to the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei and the superior olivary nucleus of the brain stem.
  312. Emmetropia
    Images fall into focus without accomodation for objects that are about six meters away.
  313. Images fall into focus without accommodation for objects that are about six meters away.
    Emmetropia
  314. Endolymph
    Fluid of the scala media
  315. Fluid of the scala media:
    Endolymph
  316. Fibrous tunic
    External wall of the eyeball, taking the form of the sclera.
  317. External wall of the eyeball, taking the form of the sclera:
    Fibrous tunic
  318. Fovea
    Tiny spot in the center of the macula lutea that contains only cones.
  319. Tiny spot in the center of the macula lutea that contains only cones.
    Fovea
  320. Fungiform papillae
    Small taste buds that are scattered over the entire tongue.
  321. Small taste buds that are scattered over the entire tongue:
    Fungiform papillae
  322. Ganglion cells
    Third-order cells whose axons project through the optic nerve to the thalamus.
  323. Third-order cells whose axons project through the optic nerve to the thalamus:
    Ganglion cells
  324. Glomerulus
    • Located within the olfactory bulb.
    • Neurons synapse on mitral cells that occur in clusters.
  325. Golgi tendon organs
    Make inhibitory connections on the corresponding spinal motor neurons so that when a tendon is dangerously strained the motor neurons serving the muscle will become less active.
  326. Make inhibitory connection on the corresponding spinal motor neurons so that when a tendon is dangerously straine, the motor neurons serving the musclewill become less active:
    Golgi tendon organs
  327. Helicotrema
    • Hole at the apex of the cochlea.
    • Connects the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani.
  328. Hole at the apex of the cochlea that connects the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani:
    Helicotrema
  329. Hering-Breuer reflex
    As lung fills during inspiraton, feedback from chest wall and lung stretch receptors tends to terminate the inspiration.
  330. As the lung fills during inspiration, the feedback from chest wall and lung stretch receptors tend to terminate the inspiration in this reflex:
    Hering-Breuer
  331. Hypermetropia
    • Lens is too thin or eyeball too short.
    • Images of near objects fall behind surface of the retina.
    • Focus of distant objects will be correct.
  332. Condition that occurs when the lens is too thin or the eyeball too short:
    Hypermetropia
  333. Condition that occurs when the images of near objects fall behind the surface of the retina:
    Hypermetropia
  334. Inferior coliculus
    • Located in the midbrain.
    • Part of the auditory afferent pathway.
  335. Iris
    • Attaches to the ciliary body anterior to the lens.
    • Creates an opening in the eye.
  336. Attaches to the ciliary body anterior to the lens, creating an opening in the eye:
    iris
  337. Joint receptors monitor _.
    the position and changes in position of synovial joints.
  338. Position and changes in position of synovial joints is monitored by _.
    joint receptors
  339. Kinocilium
    Knob-like auditory structure to which an apical tuft of sensory cilia is attached.
  340. Krause's end bulbs
    Form of Meissner's corpuscle adapted for fine touch.
  341. Form of Meissnr's corpuscle adapted for fine touch:
    Krause's end bulbs
  342. Lateral geniculate nucleus
    Visual pathway must first pas through the thalamus where ganglion cell axons of the optic nerve synapse to reach the primry visual cortex in the occipital lobes.
  343. Lens
    • Focuses light rays enterig the eye typically onto the retina.
    • Lies immediately behind the pupil.
  344. Focuses light rays entering the eye typically onto the retina:
    Lens
  345. Macula lutea
    • Circular region in the center of the posterior retina that contains mainly cones.
    • Part of the retina used for examining the visual world for color and detail.
  346. Circular region in the center of the posterior retina that contain mainly cones:
    Macula lutea
  347. Part of the retina used for examining the visual wold for color and detail:
    Macula lutea
  348. Malleus is attached to _.
    the tympanic membrane.
  349. Medial geniculate nucleus
    • Located in the thalamus.
    • Serves the auditory afferent pathway.
  350. Middle ear
    • Occupies an air-filled cavity between the tympanic membrane and the round and oval windows.
    • Contains the three auditory ossicles.
  351. Occupies an air-filled cavity between the tympanic membran and the round and oval windows:
    Middle ear
  352. Contains the three auditory ossicles:
    Middle ear
  353. Mitral cells
    Axons project to the primary olfactory area of the cerebral cortex and the limbic system.
  354. Muscle spindles
    Stretch receptors that consist of a spindle-shaped capsule enclosing two types of modified muscle fibers together with two types of nerve endings.
  355. Myotatic organs
    Stretch receptors that consist of a spindle-shaed capsule enclosing two types of modifid muscle fibers together with two types of nerve endings.
  356. Nuclear bag muscle fiber
    • Part of the stretch receptor.
    • Nerve ending that belongs to a nerve fiber designted as Type IA.
  357. Part of the stretch receptors, nerve ending that belongs to a nerve fiber designated as Type IA:
    nuclear bag muscle fiber
  358. Nuclear chain muscle fiber
    • Part of the stretch receptors.
    • Second type of nerve ending.
    • Called a flower spray ending.
    • Belong to afferents designated by their medium/large size as belonging to Type II.
  359. Second type of nerve ending, also called a flower spray ending:
    nuclear chain muscle fiber
  360. Stretch receptor nerve ending that belong to afferents designated by their medium/large size as belonging to Type II.
    nuclear chain muscle fiber
  361. Olfactory mucosa
    Patch of cell bodies on the roof of the nasal cavity.
  362. Patch of cell bodies on the roof of the nasal cavity:
    Olfactory mucosa
  363. Opsin
    • In the retina.
    • Part of the compex that confers wavelength selectivity.
  364. In the retina, part of the complex that confers wavelength selectivity:
    Opsin
  365. Optic chiasm
    • X-shaped structure.
    • Formed by optic nerve from the two eyes that converge to the midine of the underside of the brain.
  366. X-shaped structure formed by optic nerves from the two eyes that converge to the midline of the underside of the brain:
    optic chiasm
  367. Optic disc
    • Spot medial to the macula.
    • Retinal axons must converge and pass through the photoreceptor layer.
    • Forms the optic nerve.
  368. Spot medial to the macula in which retinal axns must converge and pass through the photorecepor layer, forming the optic nerve:
    optic disc
  369. Optic nerve is cranial nerve _.
    II (2)
  370. Cranial nerve II (2) is the _.
    optic nerve
  371. Optic radiation
    Thalamic interneurons that project in a fanlike manner to the occipital cortex.
  372. Thalamic interneurons that project in a fanlike manner to the occipital cortex:
    optic radiation
  373. Otolithic membrane
    • In the ear.
    • Gelatinous disk.
    • Weighted with smal calcium carbonate crystals.
  374. In the ear a gelatinous disk, weighte with small calcium carbonate crystals:
    otolithic membrane
  375. Oval window
    Conducts pressure waves to the scala vestibuli.
  376. Conducts pressure waves to the scala vestibuli:
    oval window
  377. Perilymph
    Fluid that fills the cochlea.
  378. Fluid that fills the cochlea:
    Perilymph
  379. Photons
    • Light energy that takes the form of individual packets.
    • Has an energy level that is expressed as a wavelength.
  380. Light energy that takes the form of individual packets:
    Photons
  381. Has an energy level that is expressed as a wavelength:
    Photon
  382. Photoreceptors
    • Rods and cones contained in the inner layer of the retina.
    • Help to carry out the first stages of neural integration of visual information.
  383. Rods and cones contained in the inner layer of the retina:
    Photoreceptors
  384. Help to carry out the first stages of neural integration of visual information:
    photoreceptors
  385. Posterior segments
    Hollow interior of the eyeball filled with gelatinous vitreous humor.
  386. Hollow interior of the eyebll filled with gelatinous vitreous humor:
    posterior segment
  387. Pressure waves
    Compressed and decompressed air that spread out from the source.
  388. Compressed and decompressed air that spread out from the source:
    Pressure waves
  389. Proprioception
    • Responsible for monitoring the internal state of the body.
    • Provides the basis for homeostatic responses.
  390. Responsible for monitoring the internal state of the bod, providing the basis for homeostatic responses:
    proprioception
  391. Pupil
    Opening that allows light that has penetrated the cornea to pass through the lens.
  392. Opening that allows light that has penetrated the cornea to pass through the lens:
    Pupil
  393. Rectus muscles
    Eye muscles that direct the gaze in the up-down and left-right axes.
  394. Eye muscles that direct the gaze in the up-down and left-right axes:
    rectus muscles
  395. Relative intensity
    Used by the ear to determine the position of a sound source in space.
  396. Used by the ear to determine the position of a sound souce in space:
    relative intensity
  397. Resonance
    Structures vibrate preferentialy at a best resonant frequency that is determined by their physical dimensions and material composition.
  398. Retina
    • 1. Outer pigmented layer of epithelial cells.
    • 2. Inner layer that contains photoreceptors and several levels of interneuros.
  399. Rhinencephalon
    • Olfactory system.
    • "Nosebrain".
    • Olfactory pathway to central processing areas does not pass through the thalamus.
  400. Olfactory system:
    rhinencephalon
  401. Rhodopsin
    Chromophore for rods in the retina.
  402. Chromophore for rods in the retina:
    rhodopsin
  403. Rods
    Photoreceptor within the inner layer of the retina.
  404. Round window
    Allows the cochlea to vibrate freely.
  405. Allows the cochlea to vibrate freely:
    Round window
  406. Saccule
    • Hollow structure filled with endolymph.
    • Monitors the position of the head with respect to the pull of gravity.
  407. Hollow structure filled with endolymph that monitors the position of the head with respect to the pull of gravity:
    • saccule
    • utricle
  408. Sclera
    • Tough covering seen as the white of the eye.
    • Continuous with the dura mater of the brain.
  409. Tough covering seen as the white of the eye:
    sclera
  410. Part of the eye continuous with the dura mater of the brain:
    sclera
  411. Semicircular canal
    Part of the inner ear that is responsible for body equilibrium.
  412. Part of the inner ear that is responsibe for bodily equilibrium:
    semicircular canal
  413. Solitary nucleus
    Sensory fibers carrying taste information synapse in this area of the medulla.
  414. Sensory fibers carrying taste information synapse in this area of the medulla:
    solitary nucleus
  415. Spiral ganglion
    • Nerves of the cochlea.
    • Where all auditory afferents have their cel bodies.
  416. Nerves of the cochlea:
    spiral ganglion
  417. Where all auditory afferents have their cell bodies
    spiral ganglion
  418. Static equilibrium
    • Continuous input, even if the head is not being moved.
    • Given by the system that monitors the position of the head with respect to the pull of gravity.
  419. Continuous input, even if the head is not being moved:
    static eqilibrium
  420. Stereocilia
    Sensitive part of the hair celltat is an apical tuft of sensory cilia.
  421. Sensitive part of the hair cell that is an apical tuft of sensory cilia.
    Stereocilia
  422. Strabismus
    • One eye fails to move in concert with the other eye when folloing a moving stimulus.
    • "Wandering eye."
    • "Cross-eye".
  423. One eye fails to move in concert with the oter eye when followng a moving stimulus:
    Strabismus
  424. Stretch receptors
    Monitors length in skeletal muscle.
  425. Monitors length in skeletal muscle:
    stretch receptors
  426. Superior olivary nucleus
    • In the brain stem.
    • Receives inputs from both ears.
    • Involved in sound localizaton.
  427. Located in the brain stem, this area receives input from both ears and is involved in sound localization:
    superior olivary nucleus
  428. Tectorial membrane
    • Flap of tissue that projects from the inner wall of the cochlear duct.
    • Overlies the hair cells so that the stereocilia are in close contact with its underside.
  429. Flap of tissue that projects from the inner wall of the cochlear duct:
    tectorial membrane
  430. Overlies the hair cells so that the stereocilia are in close contact with its underside:
    tectorial membrane
  431. Alpha motor neurons
    Innervate the great mass of muscle fibers that is not part of stretch receptors.
  432. Neurons that innervate the great mass of muscle fibers that is not part of stretch receptors:
    Alpha motor neurons
  433. Delta motor neurons
    Innervate the fibers within stretch receptors that command the stretch receptor fibers to shorten in parallel with the rest of the fibers.
  434. Motor neurons that innervate the fibers within stretch receptors that command the stretch receptor fibers to shorten in parallel with the rest of the fibers:
    Delta motor nuerons
  435. Tympanic membrane
    Eardrum
  436. Type IA
    • Rapidly adapting receptors.
    • Give a vigorous burst of action potentials in response to stretch.
    • Do not respond to steady states.
  437. Type _ are rapidly adapting receptors.
    IA
  438. Type _ give a vigorous burst of action potentils in response to stretch.
    IA
  439. Type _ do not respond during steady states.
    IA
  440. Type II
    • Slowly adapting receptors.
    • Respond to sustained stretch with a well-sustained train of action potentials.
  441. Type _ are slowly adapting receptors.
    II
  442. Type _ respond to a sustained stretch with a well-sustained train of action potentials.
    II
  443. Utricle
    • Hollow structure filled with endolymph.
    • Monitors the position of the head with respect to the pull of gravity.
  444. Vascular tunic
    • Within the external wall of the eyeball.
    • Forms the ciliary body.
  445. Within the external all of the eyeball, forming the ciliary body:
    vascular tunic
  446. Ventral cochlear nuclei
    Once vestibuloauditory nerve enters the brain stem, the pathway branches to the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei and the superior olivary nucleus of the brain stem.
  447. Vestibular membrane
    Roof of the cochlear duct.
  448. Roof of the cochlear duct:
    Vestibular membrane
  449. Vestibular nuclei
    Inputs from the vestibular system pass to these structures of the brain stem, detecting changes of head orientation.
  450. Inputs from the vestibular system pass to these structures of the brain stem, detecting changes of head orientation:
    vestibular nuclei
  451. Vestibular system
    • Senses the body's equilibrium.
    • Located in the ear.
  452. System that senses the body's equilibrium:
    Vestibular system
  453. Vestibuloauditory nerve
    • Cranial nerve VIII.
    • Auditory afferent pathway courses centrally through cochlear nerve, which joins the vestibular nerve to form the vestibuloauditory nerve.
  454. Vitreous humor
    Gelatinous substance that fills the posterior section of the hollow interior of the eyeball.
  455. Gelatinous substance that fills the posterior surface of the hollow interior of the eyeball:
    vitreous humor
  456. Vomeronasal organ
    Location of a small number of primary olfactory receptors that may be an evolutionary vestige.
  457. Location of a small number of primary olfactory receptors that may be an evolutionary vestige:
    vomeronasa organ
  458. Free dendritic nerve endings respond mainy to _ and _ andmay contribute to responsiveness to _.
    • temperature
    • pain
    • light touch
  459. Receptors with encapsulated endings include:
    • Merkel discs
    • Ruffini's corpuscles
    • Meissner's corpuscles
    • Pacinian corpuscles
  460. Merkel discs and Ruffini's corpuscles mediately mainly _.
    sensations of steady pressure.
  461. Encapsulated dendritic ending receptors that mediate mainly sensations of steady pressure are _ and _.
    • Merkel discs
    • Ruffini's corpuscles
  462. Meissners corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles mediate mainly _.
    vibration
  463. Encapsulated dendritic ending receptors that mediate mainly vibration sense are _ and _.
    • Meissner's corpuscles
    • Pacinian corpuscles
  464. Malles is attached to the _, the stapes is attached to the _, and the incus _.
    • tympanic membrane
    • oval window
    • connects the two
  465. Scala vestibuli abuts the _.
    oval window
  466. Scala tympani abuts the _.
    round window
  467. Scala media is the _.
    hollow part of the cochlea.
  468. Basilar membrane separates the _ from the _.
    • scala media
    • scala tympani
  469. Basilar membrane supports a strip of tissue called the _.
    organ of Corti
  470. Organ of Corti is supported by the _.
    basilar membrane
  471. Organ of Corti contains _, together with _.
    • several bands of auditory hair cells
    • supporting cells
  472. Vestibular membrane separates the _ from the _.
    • scala media
    • scala tympani
  473. Scala media is separated from the scala tympani by the _.
    vestibular membrane
  474. Absorptive state
    • After a meal.
    • Period during which the body receives nutrients from food in the intestine.
  475. Addison's syndrome
    Supply of adrenal steroids is inadequate; due to damage to the adrenals or failure of ACTH secretion.
  476. Adenohypophysis
    • Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
    • Secretes six glycoprotein hormones.
  477. Adenyl cyclase
    Converts a small fraction of the cell's supple of ATP into cAMP.
  478. Adrenal medulla
    • Branch of the sympathetic nervous system.
    • Secretes catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  479. Adrenogenital syndrome
    Excess androgen that masculinizes the genitalia of female fetuses if the mother has the defect.
  480. Aldosterone
    • Adrenal cortical steroid.
    • Regulates Na+ content.
    • With ADH, regulates extracellular fluid volume.
  481. Angiotensingen
    Plasma protein that splits off angiotensin I when renin acts on it.
  482. Anterior lobe
    • Adenohypophysis.
    • Pars distalis.
  483. Antidiuretic hormone
    • Vasopressin.
    • ADH increases rate of recovery of water from collecting ducts in the kidney.
    • Promotes water conservation and production of scanty, concentrated urine.
  484. Atrial natriuretic factor
    • ANF.
    • Peptide hormone.
    • Released by muscle fibers of the atria.
    • Along with ADH and aldosterone, regulates kidney function.
  485. Cholecystokinin
    • CCK.
    • Inhibits gastric emptying.
    • Stimulates gall bladder contractions to increase delivery of digestive enzymes to duodenum.
  486. Colloid
    • Protein matrix.
    • Acts as reservoir for iodine accumulated in the thyroid from the blood.
  487. Cushing's syndrome
    Excessive adrenal activity is generally the result of excessive secretion of ACTH.
  488. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
    • cAMP.
    • Cyclic nucleotide that acts as a second messenger.
  489. Diacylglycerol
    • Signaling substance that is a hydrophobic molecule.
    • Diffuses freely within the plasma membrane.
    • Acts on specific family of protein kinases (C kinases) distinct from that affected by cyclic nucleotides.
  490. Dihydrotestosterone
    Gonadal hormone.
  491. Enkephalns
    • Peptide hormones.
    • Involved in process by which the body modulates its own pain sensitivity.
  492. Epinephrine
    • Secreted by the adrenal medulla.
    • Catecholamine that is an important hormone of the postabsorptive state.
  493. Gastrin
    • Mediator secreted by the stomach.
    • Stimulates secretion of acid and pesin by the gastric mucosa.
  494. Glucagon
    • Secreted by the pancreas.
    • Hormone.
    • Important in the postabsorptive state.
  495. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic hormone
    • GIP.
    • Hormone released in response to appearance of carb meal in the duodenum.
    • Stimulates early release of insulin in advance of the appearance of the glucose in the blood.
  496. Gonadotropin releasing factor
    • GNRF.
    • Secreted by the hypothalamus.
    • Controls secretion of LH and FSH.
  497. Hematocrit
    Fraction of blood volume that is red blood cells.
  498. Hypothalamopituitary portal system
    • Special variety of blood circulation.
    • Involves two sets of capillaries connected by one or more portal veins.
  499. Islets of Langerhans
    • Endocrine cells embedded in the exocrine tissue.
    • Secrete three major protein hormones: glucagon, insuline, and somatostatin.
  500. Leptin
    • Protein hormone.
    • Released by adipose cells in proportion to their stored fat content.
    • Acts on the CNS to suppress appetite.
  501. Melanocyte-stimulating hormones
    • Family of hormones included in the POMC sequence.
    • Important in animals that change color.
    • No normal function in humans.
  502. Motilin
    • Stimulates periodic waves of contraction in the postabsorptive gut.
    • "Stomach growling"
  503. Myxedema
    • Disorder of body fluid distribution.
    • Caused by excessive production of mucopolysaccharides in tissues.
  504. Neurohypophysis
    • Extension of the hypothalamus.
    • Contains axon terminals of neurosecretory hypothalamic neurons.
  505. Neurosecretory cells
    Neurons whose synapses release substances that pass into the blood and act as hormones.
  506. Norepinephrine
    Major transmitter chemical released by sympathetic postganglionic fibers.
  507. Nuclear receptor
    Structure within the cell that interacts with mainly steroid hormones.
  508. Paraventricular nucleus
    Releases the octapeptide hormone oxytocin.
  509. Phosphodiesterase
    • Enzyme.
    • Converts cAMP to an inactive form.
  510. Phospholipase C
    • Membrane-bound enzyme.
    • Splits small fraction of plasma membrane's phospholipid into two signaling substances: inositol trisphosphate (ITP or IP3) and diacylglycerol.
  511. Posterior lobe
    • Neurohypophysis.
    • Pars nervosa
  512. Posttranslational processing
    Snips prohormone's sequence at various points to yield the shorter sequences of the various hormones.
  513. Proopiomelanocortin
    Protein sequence in which the primary transcript of the gene is translated and serves as a prohormone.
  514. Renal erythropoietic factor
    Released when the kidney experiences an inadequate supply of oxygen that stimulates the synthesis of the hormone erythropoietin.
  515. Renin
    • Enzyme.
    • Secreted by the kidney.
    • Protease that acts on angiotensin to split off angiotensin I.
  516. Second messenger
    • Relays hormone's effect to molecules and structures inside the cell.
    • Amplifies the effect of one hormone binding event by acting on several intracellular targets.
  517. Secretin
    • Hormone.
    • Inhibits gastric acid secretion.
    • Stimulates alkali secretion by exocrine pandcreas.
  518. Sella turcica
    • Pocket in the sphenoid bone.
    • Encloses the pituitary gland.
  519. Somatostatin
    • Somatotropin release-inhibiting factor.
    • Serves as a GI tract hormone.
  520. Somatotropin
    Growth hormone.
  521. Tetraiodothyronine
    • T4.
    • Thyroid hormone.
    • Has 4 (T4) atoms of iodine bound to the two benzene rings of each hormone molecule.
  522. Thyroid follicles
    • Millions compose the thyroid gland.
    • Each follicle consists of a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells surrounding a central space filled with colloid.
  523. Tropic hormones
    Hormones that control the function of other endocrine glands.
  524. Tyrosine
    • Aromatic amino acid.
    • Epi and norepi and T3 and T4 are derived from.
  525. Vasopressin
    Antidiuretic hormone
  526. Four major classes of hormones:
    • Tyrosine derivatives.
    • Peptides and proteins.
    • Steroids.
    • Eicosanoids.
  527. How cell-surface receptors work:
    • Hormone binds to receptor's binding site on extracellular side.
    • G protein associated with cytoplasmic side is activated.
    • G protein activates adenyl cyclase.
    • Adenyl cyclase converts ATP into cAMP.
    • Kinases attach phospate groups to intracellular enzymes.
    • Second message terminated as cAMP is converted to inactive form.
  528. Six hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis:
    • Growth hormone (HGH; somatotropin)
    • Prolactin (PRL)
    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; corticotropin)
    • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; thyrotropin)
    • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  529. Three functional classes of the steroids secreted by the adrenal cortex:
    • Mineralocorticoids.
    • Glucocorticoids.
    • Gonadocorticoids.
  530. Mineralocorticoids
    • Major form of which is aldosterone.
    • Major effect on homeostatic mechanisms for Na+ and K+.
  531. Glucocorticoids
    • Major form of which is cortisol.
    • Major effects are on energy production during fastiong and function of the immune system.
  532. Gonadocorticoids
    Sex hormones.
  533. Two basic types of Tyrosine derivatives are:
    • Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4).
    • Catecholamines (epi and norepi).
  534. Renin secretion is stimulated by two major factors:
    • 1. Decrease in Na+ concentration (hyponatremia): need to conserve more Na+.
    • 2. Decrease in rate of blood flow to the kidney (hypovolemia): need to form additional ECF.
  535. Parathormone (PTH) has effects on three organs:
    • 1. Bone (stimulates osteoclasts).
    • 2. Kidney (increases recovery of Ca++).
    • 3. Intestine (1,25 DOHCC is necessary for uptake of Ca++).
  536. ABO antigens
    Body automatically possesses antibodies against those antigens that one's own blood cells do not possess.
  537. Agranular leukocytes
    WBC belonging to the specific immune system.
  538. Beta thalassemia
    • Genetic disease.
    • Synthesis of Hg may be impaired.
  539. Bilirubin
    • Greenish yellow pigment.
    • Results from conversion of g released in the course of destruction of RBC.
  540. Capillary filtration
    Generation of interstitial fluid from plasma.
  541. Erythroblastosis fetalis
    Destruction of mature RBC causes a form of hemolytic anemia marked by the appearance of immature, nucleated RBCs in the newborn's blood.
  542. Erythropoietin
    • Hormone.
    • Responsive to oxygenationstate of tissues that influence formation of RBC.
  543. Extrinsic pathway
    • In hemostasis.
    • Initiated by chemical factors released by damaged cells.
    • Involves activation of Factor VII leading to activation of Factor X and association of Factor X and Factor V to form a prothrombin activator complex.
  544. Gamma globulins
    • Fraction of globulins that consists specifically of antibodies.
    • Major type of recognition protein of the immune system.
  545. Globulins
    Plasma proteins
  546. Granulocytes
    WBC that are agents of the nonspecific immune system.
  547. Hematocrit
    Fraction of blood volume occupied by RBC.
  548. Hemocytoblast
    Stem cell for all blood cell types.
  549. Hemolytic anemia
    Rate of destruction of RBC may be increased.
  550. Hemostasis
    Prevents or minimizes blood loss by plugging injured vessels until healing can occur.
  551. Icterus
    • Excess of bilirubin.
    • Gives skin and sclera yellow tinge.
  552. Intrinsic pathway
    • Initiated by trauma to the blood itself or by exposure to abnormal surface, such as glass or collagen.
    • Leads to cascade of factors that terminate in the formation of the prothrombin activator complex.
  553. Lymphocytes
    • Cells of the specific immune system.
    • Identify and direct attack against foreign substances, microbial invaders, other nonself materials.
  554. Megakaryocyte
    • Large nucleated cell.
    • Involved in the genesis of platelets.
  555. Monocytes
    • Agranular lymphocytes.
    • Leave circulation and enter tissues where they transform into macrophages.
  556. Primary immune response
    • Reaction to a transfusion of blood.
    • Occurs between genetically different individuals.
  557. Rh system
    Second form of blood type.
  558. Serum
    • Results from the removal of proteins involved in clotting.
    • More stable form of plasma.
    • Used medicinally as a source of gamma globulins.
  559. Thrombin
    • Plasma protein.
    • Converts fibrinogen into fibrin.
  560. Tissue thromboplastins
    Chemical factors released by damaged cells that initiate the extrinsic pathway.
  561. Specific gravity
    Ration between the weight of the liquid and that of an equal volume of pure water.
  562. Viscosity
    Measure of the fluid's resistance to flow.
  563. Aortic baroreceptors
    • Cardiovascular reflexes.
    • Regulate arterial blood pressure.
  564. Atrioventricular (AV) node
    • Nodal fibers near the junction of atrial and ventricular septa.
    • Spontaneously active.
    • Gives the heart automaticity.
  565. Bainbridge reflex
    • Second reflex pathway.
    • Originates from the vascular system.
    • Keeps pressure low.
    • Prevents pooling of blood on the venous side of the circulation.
  566. Baroreceptor reflex
    Decrease in arterial BP triggers reflexive increase in heart rate/force through simultaneous decrease in parasympathetic tone and increase in sympathetic outflow to the heart and to the resistance vessels of the vascular system.
  567. Bundle of His
    Excitation enters AV node then spreads into bundle of fibers which divides into one branch that passes down interventricular septum and into right ventricle, and two branches enter the left ventricle.
  568. Coronary sinus
    Collects blood from the heart's own cardiac veins.
  569. Einthoven's triangle
    EKG recorded from corners of the triangle by the right arm, left arm, and left leg.
  570. Frank-Starling law
    Heart automatically adjusts stroke volume so that increases in end-diastolic volume are matched by increases in stroke volume.
  571. Inotropic effect
    Contractility or force-generating potential of the heart modulated by autonomic inputs.
  572. Isovolumetric contraction
    Heart cycle during which the ventricle is contracting as a closed container.
  573. Isovolumetric relaxation
    Heart cycle after ejection in which bicuspid valvecloses and ventricle contains end-systolic volume of blood.
  574. Left coronary artery
    Serves both ventricles, left atrium, and interventricular septum.
  575. Left pulmonary artery
    Carries blood to the lungs.
  576. Medullary cardiovascular center
    With onset of exercise or excitement, first response of the center of the brain stem is removal of parasympathetic tone, allowing SA node to drive heart at its spontaneous rate.
  577. Purkinje fibers
    Conducting fibers of the ventricular mass.
  578. Right coronary artery
    Serves the right atrium, right ventricle, and variable portions of the left atrium and left ventricle.
  579. Right pulmonary artery
    Carries blood to the lungs.
  580. Stroke volume
    Blood that is ejected from the ventricle into the artery, rapidly raising arterial pressure from diastolic to systolic.
  581. Total peripheral resistnce (TPR)
    • Net resistance to blood flow.
    • Whole-body value tha is affected by dilation or constriction of blood vessels.
  582. Ventricular hypertorphy
    Abnormal increases in the mass of the heart muscle in response to chronic overload.
  583. Heart wall
    • Pericardium: double membrane; encloses heart.
    • Fibrous pericardium: outer layer;
    • Serous pericardium: inner layer, continuous with epicardium.
    • Epicardium: outermost layer
    • Myocardium: middle layer (thickest)
    • Endocardium: innermost layer (sheet of endothelium)
  584. Right atrium receives blood from three veins:
    • Superior vena cava
    • Inferior vena cava
    • Coronary sinus
  585. Right atrium opens into the right ventricle by the _.
    tricuspid (right atrioventricular valve).
  586. Right ventricle pumps blood through the _.
    pulmonary semilunar valve.
  587. Semilunar valve leads into the _.
    pulmonary trunk.
  588. Pulmonary trunk branches into the _ and _ that _.
    • right pulmonary artery
    • left pulmonary artery
    • carry blood to the lungs
  589. Left atrium receives _ through the _.
    • blood returning to the hear from the lungs
    • pulmonary veins
  590. Blood leaves the left atrium and enters the left ventricle through the _.
    mitral or bicuspid (left atrioventricular) valve.
  591. Key Point:
    • Heart fills under low pressure.
    • Heart ejects blood against high pressure.
  592. Key Point:
    • Walls of large arteries store energy as they are stretched during ejection.
    • Release it during rest of the cardiac cycle.
  593. Electrical events of the heart cycle:
    • 1. SA nodal fibers reach threshold, generate action potential.
    • 2. Excitation spreads, atrial systole begins.
    • 3. Wave of excitation passing through atrial fibers approaches AV node.
    • 4. Excitation enters AV node, spreads into bundle of His, ventricular systole is initiated. Wave of repolarization in the atria.
    • 5. Ventricular repolarizaton occurs. Diastolic phase begins new cycle.
  594. Afferent arterioles
    • Branches from the renal arteries within the cortex of the kidney.
    • Serves a single functional excretory unit, a nephron.
  595. Amplifier T cells
    Stimulate increased levels of activity in the other cell types of their clone.
  596. Anastomose
    Rejoining of the capillaries of each capillary bed.
  597. B lymphocytes
    Produce antibodies.
  598. Bainbridgereflex
    • Receptors are in the walls of the right atrium and venae cavae.
    • Monitor venous return.
  599. Bowman's capsule
    Initial segment of the nephron.
  600. Capillary filtration
    Continuous circulation of fluid across the capillary wall.
  601. Chemotaxis
    Neutrophils and monocytes are attracted to an inflamed area.
  602. Circle of Willis
    • Joins the carotid and vertebral pathways.
    • Allows either pathway to perfuse the entire brain if the other path is blocked.
  603. Circumflex artery
    Supplies the left atrium and the posterior part of the left ventricle.
  604. Complement activation
    • Incorporates about a dozen proteins.
    • When activated by antibody binding, can punch holes in the cells of microbes and parasites.
    • Stimulates the attack of phagocytes.
    • Attract phagocytes to the scene.
  605. Cytotoxic cells
    • CD8 cells.
    • Attack invaders directly.
    • Recognizes them through T cell receptors carried on the cell surface.
    • Secretes toxic substances that destroys the invading cells by perforating their plasma membrane.
  606. Diapedesis
    Leukocytes first stick to the walls of blood vessels in the area and then squeeze through intercellular junctions to enter the affected tissue.
  607. Distributing arteries
    Carry blood to specific body regions.
  608. Ductus arteriosus
    Connects the fetal aortic arch and pulmonary trunk.
  609. Ductus venosus
    Allows much of the umbilical venous blood to bypass the liver and enter the fetal vena cava.
  610. Dural sinuses
    • Structures through which most of the venous drainage of the brain enters.
    • Lies between the two layers of cranial dura mater surrounding the cerebrum.
  611. Efferent arteriole
    • Formed by the rejoining of the glomerular capillaries.
    • Serves a second peritubular capillary bed surrounding the cortical parts of the tubule.
  612. Efferent lymphatic vessels
    Carry the filtered lymph onward toward the thoracic duct.
  613. Elastic arteries
    Trunk of the arterial tree that include the aorta and its thoracic branches, the common iliac arteries of the thighs, and the pulmonary trunk that passes from right ventricle to the lungs.
  614. Extrinsic regulation
    Controls arteriolar diameter by input from the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system.
  615. Fab regions
    Formed by the light chains and heavy chains within the structure of an antibody.
  616. Fc region
    Stem of the antibody Y structure that is part of the heavy chain.
  617. Flow autoregulation
    Controls arteriolar diameter by chemical substances released by the cells in the immediate vicinity of the arteriole.
  618. Hepatic portal system
    • Collects venous blood from the abdominal and pelvic digestive organs.
    • Delivers this blood by way of the hepatic portal vein.
  619. Heavy chains
    • Forms backbone joined by multiple disulfide bonds at the fork of the Y structure of the antibody.
    • Both heavy chains lie parallel in the stem of the Y.
    • Each one forms one of the branches.
  620. Helper T cells
    • CD4 cells.
    • Interact with B cell clones that can react to the same antigen.
    • Promotes secretion of antibodies.
  621. Hilus
    Line along which veins exit the spleen.
  622. Hydrostatic pressure
    Forces that affect fluid movement between plasma and interstitial fluid.
  623. Hyperemia
    Dilation of bloodvessels resulting in an increase in blood flow.
  624. Hypothalamic-anterior hypophyseal portal system
    Carries blood that has perfused the hypothalamus of the brain to a second capillary bed in the anterior hypophysis of the pituitary.
  625. Hypothalamoadenohypo-physeal portal system
    Connects the hypothalamus to the adenohypophysis of the pituitary.
  626. Kinins
    Chemical mediators of inflammation.
  627. Major histocmopatibility class (MHC) proteins
    • Cell surface proteins.
    • Interact between macrophages and T cells.
  628. Marginal artery
    Branches from the right coronary artery descending vertically, serving the right ventricle.
  629. Mean arterial pressure (MAP)
    • Volume flow rate to the venous return (VR).
    • Flow resistance to the total peripheral resistance (TPR).
    • VR = MAP/TPR.
  630. Opsonization
    Proteins, when activated by antibody binding, stimulate the attack of phagocytes.
  631. Peritubular capillary bed
    Surrounds the cortical parts of the tubule in the kidney.
  632. Peyer's patches
    Clusters of lymphatic follicles in the wall of the distal small intestine.
  633. Protein oncotic pressure
    Osmotic gradient between plasma and interstitial fluid that results from the fact that proteins do not freely enter the interstitial fluid from the plasma.
  634. Release-inhibiting factors
    Secreted by the hypothalamus into the hypothalamic-anterior hypophyseal portal blood to control the secretion of anterior hypophyseal hormones.
  635. Resistance elements
    • In the vascular system.
    • Arterioles.
  636. Respiratory pump
    • Blood in thoracic veins cannot flow backward because of the valves.
    • Must flow forward into the right atrium.
  637. Reticular fibers
    • Laid down by fibroblasts.
    • Provides the scaffolding that the basic structure of lymphoid tissues is based on.
  638. Reverse transcription
    Viruses cause their RNA sequences to be converted to DNA.
  639. Shunt pathway
    Allow much of the output of the fetal right heart to bypass the pulmonary loop of the collapsed fetal lungs and enter the systemic circulation (right-to-left shunts).
  640. Sinusoids
    Specialized liver capillaries.
  641. Thoracic duct
    Path through which lymph drainage from most of the body, excluding the superior right quadrant, reenters the blood circulation.
  642. Thymopoietin and Thymosin
    • Hormone.
    • Stimulates immunocompetence in the T lymphocytes.
  643. Total peripheral resistance (TPR)
    Caused by the constriction of the arterioles.
  644. Tunica externa
    • Outermost layer of arteries and veins.
    • Consists mainly of connective tissue.
  645. Tunica interna
    • Innermost layer of arteries and veins.
    • Consists of endothelial cells resting on a basement membrane of connective tissue.
  646. Tunica media
    • Layer in arteries and veins between the tunica externa and tunica interna.
    • Consists mainly of vascular smooth muscle.
  647. Vasa recta
    Parallel loops formed by the medullary capillaries in the kidney.
  648. Vasa vasorum
    Arteries and veins that oxygenate and nourish the tissues of the largest blood vessels.
  649. Effect of activating alpha receptors is to _.
    cause both arteriolar and venous smooth muscle to contract.
  650. Effect of activating beta-2 receptors is to _.
    cause vasodilation.
  651. In resting skeletal muscle, a low dose of epinephrine elicits predominately a _ effect.
    beta (vasodilation)
  652. In resting skeletal muscle, norepinephrine or a high dose of epinephrine causes mainly _ effect.
    alpha (vasoconstriction)
  653. During hemorrhage, norepi and epi increase the _ and force of _.
    • heart rate
    • contraction
  654. IgM
    • First class of antibodies to appear in the blood in response to an active infection.
    • Consists of a pentamer containing five of the Y-shaped monomers.
  655. IgG
    • Found in the blood.
    • Cross capillary walls.
    • Enter interstitial fluid.
    • Cross placenta.
  656. IgA
    Found as a dimer (2 Y subunits) in tears, saliva, and breast milk.
  657. IgE
    • Found on surfaces of neutrophils and mast cells.
    • Trigger histamine release.
    • Involved in allergic reactions.
  658. IgD
    • Attached to surfaces of B lymphocytes.
    • Indicator of the clonal identity of each lymphocyte.
  659. Anatomical dead space
    Area only the airway in which some of the air moved through the respiratory system ventilates, thus not mediating gas exchange.
  660. Beta thalassemia
    • Genetic disease.
    • Most common in people of Mediterranean ancestry.
    • Result of a mutation that impairs synthesis of beta chains.
  661. Bohr effect
    Decrease in pH which results from production of acidic endproducts.
  662. Boyle's law
    Volume of a gas is inversely proportionl to the pressure at constant temperature.
  663. Charles' law
    If volume is held constant, pressure is proportional to temperature.
  664. Dalton's law
    Total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressure of the gases that make up the mixture.
  665. Diffusing capacity
    Immediate effect unrelated to training, arising instead from the greater surface area of the more expanded lungs and from an improvement in the ventilation/perfusion ratio with greater blood flow to the lungs.
  666. Dynamic volumes
    Changes in lung volume measured during a forced expiration.
  667. Expiratoy reserve volume
    • ERV.
    • Value that represents additional air that could be exhaled with an effort.
  668. Flow resistive work
    Work done to move air against the airway resistance.
  669. Forced vital capacity
    • FVC.
    • Measurable value for a forced expiration.
  670. Functional residual capacity
    • FRC.
    • Value that measures the expiratory reserve volume and the residual volume.
  671. Gluconeogenesis
    Conversion of some of the lactic acid to glucose by the liver.
  672. Henry's law
    Concentration of a gas in water solution is determined by the partial pressure of the gas multiplied by its temperature-dependent solubility constant.
  673. Hyaline membrane disease
    Condition in which there is a lack of enough surfactant to properly inflate their lungs.
  674. Inspiratory capacity
    • IC.
    • Actual tidal olume plus the inspiratory reserve volume.
  675. Inspiratory reserve volume
    • IRV.
    • Maximal inspiration possible.
  676. Law of Laplace
    Pressure P inside a bubble (or any elastic sphere) is a function of the wall tension T and the radius r:P=2T/r.
  677. Minute volume
    Total volume of air moved through the respiratory system in one minute.
  678. Physiological dead space
    • Overventilated alveoli.
    • Prevented by ventilation-perfusion matching.
  679. Physiological shunt
    Underventilated alveoli, if ventilation-perfusion matching did not occur.
  680. Respiratory alkalosis
    Results from sensory or nervous conditions that cause hyperventilation (anxiety, cold exposure, certain nervous stimulant drugs) or from rapid travel to high altitude.
  681. Static volumes
    Air capacities measured in the absence o airflow.
  682. The 2,3 diphosphoglyceate
    • 2,3 DPG.
    • Chemical mediator.
    • Producedby RBC as they pass through tissues that are not receiving adequate oxygen.
  683. Tidal volume
    • TV.
    • 500 ml of air from atmosphere driven through the airway to the alveola sacs.
  684. Main parts of the airway and respiratory zone
    • Nasal cavity.
    • Larynx.
    • Trachea.
    • Primary bronchi.
    • Terminal bronchioles.
  685. Expiratory reserve volume
    • ERV.
    • Represents additional air that could be exhaled with effort.
  686. Residual volume
    • RV.
    • Represents the remaining gas that could not be expelled.
  687. Expiratory reserve volume and residual volume constitute the _.
    • functional residual capacity.
    • FRC
  688. Maximal inspiration possible is the _.
    • inspiratory reserve volume.
    • IRV.
    • 3000 ml
  689. Actual tidal volume plus the inspiratory reserve volume constitute the _.
    • inspiratory capacity.
    • IC.
    • 3500 ml
  690. Vital capacity (VC) is the _.
    largest volume that can be ventilated in one breath.
  691. Hallmark of restrictive disease is that _.
    filling the lung is more difficult than in a healthy person, whereas emptying is easier.
  692. In obstructive disease the _.
    flow resistance of the airway is increased.
  693. Driving forces for gas diffusion are _.
    partial pressure differences, rather than concentration differences.
  694. Restrictive disease:
    • FVC and FRC decrease.
    • Ratio FEV1.0:FVC increases.
  695. Frequent small breaths inefficient for two reasons:
    • Dead space ventilation becomes large in relation to alveolar ventilation.
    • Flow resistive work becomes large because of the rapid movement of air back and forth.
  696. Infrequent large breaths are inefficient because:
    Force needed to expand lung/chest wall system to volumes approaching their physical limit is disproportionately great, making the elastic work component very large.
  697. Smooth muscle of bronchioles and pulmonary arterioles are sensitiv to the _.
    PO2 and PCO2 of air in local alveoli.
  698. Decrease in PO2 and increase in PCO2 are signals that _.
    • perfusion is overmatching ventilation.
    • Brochioles dilat.
    • Arterioles constrict.
  699. HbO2 dissociation curve shifts to the right by three factors r/t tissue metabolic rate:
    • 1. Decrease in pH. Bohr effect.
    • 2. Increase in temp.
    • 3. Presence of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate.
  700. Brain stem respiratory area receives input from:
    • 1. Central chemoreceptors located in the medulla; sensitive to H+.
    • 2. Peripheral chemoreceptors located i the carotid and aortic bodies; sensitive to PO2.
    • 3. Stretch receptors in the lung and chest wall
    • 4. Hypothalamic centers.
  701. Metabolic acidosis is due to _.
    fixed acids.
  702. Metabolic alkalosis is due to _.
    ingestion of some alkali or loss of natural acid.
  703. Respiratory acidosis results from _.
    any condition that impairs ventilation.
  704. Respiratory alkalosis results from _.
    sensory or nervous conditions that cause hyperventilation or from rapid travel to high altitude.
  705. Respiratory centers compensate for metabolic acidosis by _.
    increasing ventilation.
  706. Renal compensation for respiratory acidosis involves _.
    an increase in H+ secretion in the renal tubules.
  707. Renal compensation for respiratory alkalosis involves _.
    a switch from acid secretion to alkali secretion in the distal tubule of the renal nephron.
  708. Acini
    Small clusters of cells surrounding a hollow cavity.
  709. Antrum
    Funnel-shaped region that leads into the pylorus.
  710. Bombesin
    • Peptide hormone.
    • AKA: human gastrin-releasing peptide
  711. Capillary lipase
    • Enzyme.
    • Activated by insulin.
    • Converts plasma lipid into 3 fatty acids and glycerol.
  712. Crypts of Lieberkuhn
    Spaces between the villi in the small intestine.
  713. Cystic duct
    Branch from the common hepatic duct that leads to the gall bladder.
  714. Deamination
    Removal of the amino acid group from a compound.
  715. Ductal cells
    Add bicarbonate to a primary secretion of the acinar cells.
  716. Enterochromaffin-like cells
    • Endocrine cells.
    • Secrete histamine.
  717. Falciform ligament
    Separates the lie into right and left lobes.
  718. Haustrum
    Series of pouch-like vaginations in the wall of the colon.
  719. Prostaglandin
    • Secreted by the stomach.
    • Protects against self-digestio.
  720. Rehydration solution
    • Restores fluid homeostasis.
    • Salty solution.
    • Effectiveness of solution enhanced by inclusion of glucose and/or amino acids.
  721. Somatostatin
    • Secreted by D cells.
    • Inhibitor of gastric secretion.
  722. Taeniae coli
    Three prominent bands of longitudinal muscle of the large intestine.
  723. Trypsin
    • Attack specific peptid bonds.
    • Converts proteins to peptide fragments.
    • Activate inactive precursors of all pancreatic enzymes.
  724. Organs suspended from mesentery are called _.
    intraperitoneal organs
  725. Intraperitoneal organs include:
    • Stomach
    • Liver
  726. Retroperitoneal organs
    • Lost their connection with the mesentery during development.
    • Lie behind the posterior wall of parietal peritoneum.
  727. Retroperitoneal organs include:
    Pancreas
  728. Four regions of the stomach:
    • Fundus.
    • Body.
    • Antrum.
    • Pylorus.
  729. Stimulatory influences that act on G cells:
    • 1. Parasympathetic input from postganglionic cells that corelease acetylcholine and bombesin.
    • 2. Secretagogues: derived from food.
  730. Inhibitory influences that act on G cells:
    • 1. Sympathetic input (norepi).
    • 2. Feedback inhibition from the duodenum.
    • 3. Stomach protects self by releasing prostaglandins (signal of tissue damage).
  731. Small intestine is composed of _.
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  732. Large intestine is divided into the _.
    • Cecum
    • Colon
    • Rectum
  733. Cecum
    • Lies in the RLQ.
    • V. appendix projects from inferior aspect.
  734. Colon
    • 1. Ascending
    • 2. Transverse
    • 3. Descending
    • 4. Sigmoid - leads to the rectum
  735. Citric acid cycle
    Carbons removed from backbone. Yields reducing power, which is captured in the form of reduced coenzyme. GDP is phosphorylated directly. 2 ATP & 2 NADH from glycolytic pathway, + 10 molecules of reduced coenzyme from pyruvate metabolism. Reduced coenzymes enter terminal oxidative metabolism.
  736. Beta oxidation
    Aliphatic carbon chain of fatty acid clipped into 2-carbon chunks & energy released is captured as reduced coenzyme (FADH2 & NADH).
  737. Beta oxidation steps
    • 1. Coenzyme A mole attached to carboxyl group of fatty acid, yielding fatty acytl-CoA.
    • 2. Double bond formed between 2nd & 3rd carbons in chain.
    • 3. Water mole reacted with double-bonded carbons: 3rd carbon acquires hydroxyl group.
    • 4. Hydroxyl group converted to double bond to oxyen, splitting bond between 2nd & 3rd carbons, releasing free mole of acetyl-CoA.
  738. Ketone bodies
    • Molecular scraps created from beta oxidation.
    • Caused when fat breakdown occurs at a high rate, as with a starving individual.
  739. Removal of amino group from amino acid leaves _.
    keto acid
  740. Glucose
    • Insulin dependent.
    • When glycogen stores of liver are filled, liver converts remaining glucose to fat.
  741. Amino acid
    • Uptake stimulated by insulin.
    • Carried out by Na+-coupled cotransporter.
    • Excess undergoes deamination in the liver.
    • Transferred to glutamate, converted to glutamine, resulting in keto acid: converted to fatty acid for lipogenesis.
  742. Triacylglycerol
    • Adipose removes chylomicrons and deposit triacylglycerols as depot fat.
    • 1st step carried out by capillary lipase: activated by insulin.
  743. Primary event that brings on postabsorptive state is _.
    decrease in levels of insulin.
  744. Three hormones important in postabsorptive state:
    • Epinephrine.
    • Glucagon.
    • Cortisol.
  745. Body's reserve energy stores take the following forms:
    • Glycogen in liver and muscle.
    • Lipid in adipose tissue.
    • Muscle protein.
  746. Glycogeolysis
    • By the liver.
    • Leads glucose release.
    • Stimulated by epinephrine and glucagon.
    • Glucose released into the blood.
    • Liver's store sufficient 1-3 hrs normal activity.
  747. Glycogenolysis
    • By muscle.
    • Supplies lactic acid for gluconeogenesis by the liver.
    • Does not lead to glucose exported into the blood.
    • Glucose metabolized to lactic acid.
  748. Lipolysis of depot fat
    • Releases fatty acis and glycerol into blood.
    • Key enzyme: hormone-sensitive lipase.
    • Activated by epi and glucagon.
    • Breaks down depot fat as free fatty acid and glycerol.
  749. Protein catabolism
    • Important during prolonged fasting.
    • Amino acid released are deaminated, resulting ketoacids used for gluconeogenesis by the liver.
  750. Glucose sparing
    Protects glucose for the CNS.
  751. ACE inhibitors
    • Diuretics.
    • Block angiotensin-converting enzyme.
  752. Aldosterone antagonists
    • Competitively inhibit the action of aldosterone on its tubular receptor.
    • Decreases distal tubular Na+ recovery.
    • Blocks conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (ACE inhibitors).
    • Decreases aldosterone secretion.
  753. Aquaporins
    In the presence of adequate levels of ADH, collecting duct cells have numrous water channels in their plasma membranes that make the collecting duct wate but not salt permeable.
  754. Atrial natriuretic factor
    • ANF.
    • Peptide hormone.
    • Released by the heart.
    • Controls glomerular filtration rate.
  755. Baroreceptor reflex
    • Constricts arterioles throughout the systemic loop.
    • Controls glomerular fitration rate.
  756. Central osmoreceptors
    Neurons closely connected to hypothalamic ADH-secreting cells that affect the rate of ADH secretion.
  757. GFR is controlled by two systems:
    • Baroreceptor reflex.
    • Atrial natriuretic factor.

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