World Geography First Semester Exam
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Where does the word Geography come from?
From Greek- Meaning Earth (Geo) and Writing About (Graphy)
What are the two main branches of Geography?
- Physical Geography- The Physical Planet
- Human Geography- The different people who live around the world
What is another name for Geography that involves the study of spaces on the Earth's surface?
What is the ability to construct and use mental maps, visualize spaces in your mind, and is very important in the study of Geography?
Definition of Maps
Flat, two dimensional representation of space. Main tool in Geography.
Definition of Cartography
Practice of making maps
- Most important directions- North, South, East, West
Definition of Globes
Most accurate method of showing the entire surface of the Earth. It is an exact scale model of the Earth.
What are Great Circle Routes?
The shortest distance between two points on a globe or around the world
What are Global Gores
- The surface of a sphere, or globe, laid down flat
All maps are distorted because it is not possible to put the surface of a 3D object (Earth) on to a 2D object (map) without distortion. What is this called?
What are Map Projections?
Different ways, or styles, of presenting our round Earth on Flat Maps- All have distortion
What are Geographic Information Systems (GIS)? example: GPS
Spatial Information Systems that merge information from satellites and land based sources, computers store this in digital form, good example is GPS, Global Positioning Systems
What is the amount of degrees in a circle (and around the world)?
What is the invisible line that streches around the middle of the Earth dividing the Earth into two equal parts, NTS? Baseline latitude= 0 degrees
What are the lines that indicate how far North + South of the Equator is? They are parallel
What is the Range of Latitude?
0 degrees- The Equator to 90 degrees North + South- The North and South Poles
What is the Prime Meridian?
The baseline longitude 0 degrees running through Greenwich (London) England. All other lines of longitude are measured in degrees from 0 to 180 East + West from it
What are longitude lines?
Known as meridian, they measure distance East + West of the Prime Meridian from 0 degrees to 180 degrees
What is the maximum longitude (180 degrees) running through the pacific ocean and is also the location of the first and last time zones?
International Date Line (IDL)
How many Hemispheres are on Earth?
What creates a Global Grid?
- Interesecting lines of latitude and longitude
- gives every place on Earth an absolute location, or global address
- Ex. San Antonio- 29N, 98W
How many Time Zones in the world are there?
What are Time Zones based on?
360 degrees of longitude (total)/24 time zone= 15 degrees of longitude per time zone
What degree is the tilt of the Earth?
23.5 degrees tilt from vertical
Where is the Tropic of Cancer?
23.5 degrees North, In northeren edge of the tropical climate zone
Where is the Tropic of Capricorn?
23.5 degrees South, In southern edge of the tropical climate zone
What's the definition for Climate?
Term for the weather patterns that an area or region typically experiences over a long period of time
What are Tropical Climate Zones "the tropics" (low latitude climate zone)?
Areas on Earth that receive the most direct sunlight and greatest heat energy from the sun- always warm
Where is the Artic Circle?
- Max latitude 90 North
- tilt of the Earth 93.5
- 66.5 North
- Marks the edge of the polar climate zone in the North
Where is the Antartic Circle?
- Max latitude 90 South
- tilt of the Earth 23.5
- 66.5 South
- Marks the edge of the polar climate zone in the South
Where is the Polar Climate Zone (high latitude)?
In the high latitudes from the circle lines to the poles. Sunlight strikes there very indirectly, and it's always cold there
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