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What is hypertension?
Hypertension is abnormally high blood pressure. Atherosclerosis may be caused in part by hypertension. The higher a person's blood pressure, the greater their risk of developing cardiovascular problems, such as heart attacks and strokes. Hypertension that is not treated can also cause kidney damage and shortened life expectancy.
How does a heart attack happen?
When an artery that supplies blood to the heart becomes blocked, the heart muscle tissue that depends on that blood supply does not get oxygen. Cells and tissues that do not get oxygen become damaged and can die. If enough heart muscle cells are damaged the heart may stop beating.
What is a stroke?
When a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked or bursts and that part of the brain receives no oxygen. Brain damage that occurs during a stroke can affect many parts of the body.
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
The respiratory system is the group of organs that takes in oxygen and gets rid of CO2. Respiration or breathing is the transport of oxygen from outside the body to cells and tissues and the transport of CO2 and wastes away from the cells and to the environment.
What happens when you inhale?
Oxygen in the air moves into the blood from the lungs. The oxygen-rich blood flowing away from the lungs is carried to all the cells in the body. Oxygen leaves the capillaries and enters the body cells. Inside each cell, oxygen is used for cellular respiration. The energy that is stored in food molecules is released.
What happens when you exhale?
When you exhale, CO2 is released from the body. CO2 moves from body cells and into capillaries where it is carried in the blood all the way to the lungs. The CO2 moves out of the lung capillaries and into the lungs where it is exhaled.
What are the parts of the respiratory system?
Breathing is made possible by your respiratory system. Air enters into your respiratory system through your nose or mouth when you breathe in. From there, the air moves through a series of tubes to get to your lungs.
What happens in the nose, pharynx and larynx?
Air enters your respiratory system through your nose and mouth. From the nose, air flows into the pharynx or throat. The pharynx branches into two tubes. The esophagus leads to the stomach. The larynx leads to the lungs. The larynx is the part of the throat that holds the vocal chords. When air passes across the vocal chords, they vibrate making noise.
What are alveoli?
In the lungs, the bronchioles lead to tiny sacs called alveoli. Alveoli are surrounded by blood vessels. Gases in the air move across the thin walls of the alveoli and blood vessels. As you breathe, air is sucked into and forced out of alveoli.
How is breathing carried out?
Breathing is carried out by the diaphragm and rib muscles. The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle below the lungs. As you inhale, the diaphragm contracts and moves down. The volume of the chest increases. As a result, a vacuum is created and air is sucked in. Exhaling reverses the process.
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